University of Texas at Arling

Instructions for the Final.

YOU are the subject of the Final in this course! The goal of the Final is for you to create your own plan for aging well. In this way you will be actively using and applying what you have learned throughout the course to your own health and well-being.

The second goal for the Final is to develop insight and empathy for helping others during their journey to age well. One way to build the skill-set for helping and educating others is to first help and educate yourself. By doing first for ourselves what we may be asking others to do for their own benefit, we learn to “walk our talk” — that is, we know from experience how to do, apply, create, discern, and use our learning for our own and others’ benefit.

Throughout this course you may have picked up a theme – be prepared to age and know how to age well. Great, but what exactly does that mean? And further more, what exactly would a healthy aging plan or preparation look like? What is are the differences between a “good” plan and a “doable plan” or a “realistic plan” and an “unrealistic plan”? Plans can be fashioned out of pretty words and phrases and look good on paper but be completely impractical when put into practice. One way to check yourself is to seek the input from others. Sometimes, having someone else review your work help you to see areas you may have missed or areas in a plan that need polish. In order to help ensure you are on a right and realistic path, you will be required to seek feedback from a person/people who have walked this path before you – your older adults. By going to a primary source for information and feedback, you also will practicing a skill for creating relevant health promotion material – checking back with the people you wish to serve. Then, as further back-up, you will also be looking into scholarly research to show support for your ideas and plans.

Personal Plan for Aging Well Instructions:

You will be composing a formal paper 5-7 page, APA formatted (double spaced, 12 font) which will include all the elements listed below. Use a cover sheet, in-text citations in the paper where needed and a reference list. As you read through the list, consider the following prompting questions as a guide for getting started with your plan. These questions include:

This would be your paper’s introductory paragraph(s) for the reader:

  • What kind of healthy older adult do you want to be?
  • Who do you want to be and what do you want to be able to do?
  • How are you going to grow into becoming this healthy older adult?
  • What do you need in order to achieve these aspirations?
  • How will you use your learning from this class and from other older adults who have gone before you to become the healthy older adult you wish to be?

1. Areas to address in your plan (the body of your paper): In your paper/plan be sure to address all the following areas of aging and health.

  • Physical
  • Emotional
  • Social/Family
  • Financial
  • Late Life Care
  • End of Life

Remember, to fully address each of the above areas of aging and health you will need to note:

  • knowledge
  • resources
  • assistance
  • research support
  • the what, when, how and why of each aspect of your plan.

2. Feedback from an older adult or configuration from other resources: 1. Once you have created your initial plan and included all of the elements listed above, if possible without placing yourself or the older adult at risk from the COVID-19 virus, you are to share your plan with an older adult of your choice for feedback. OR 2. If sharing your healthy aging plan with an older adult is not possible without COVID-19 risk to you or an older adult, you may rely on the use portions of the textbook, other resources shared in this course by me or your classmates, or peer-reviewed research you have found on your own. Some of the questions about your healthy aging plan you will want to verify should include:

  • Is my healthy aging plan realistic?
  • Is my healthy aging plan comprehensive?
  • What am I missing or what haven’t I thought of including?
  • What would the older adult to whom you are showing your plan or the course materials (if you are not able to share your healthy aging plan with an older adult) suggest might be added add to your healthy aging plan to make it better?
  • After you have written about the older adult’s feedback or identified course materials to critique your healthy aging plan,, then describe how did you used the feedback from the older adult or course materials to modify your plan.

3. Reflections on Learning (the Summary paragraph): Include in your plan the following

  • Specific references to the course assignments, text book, supplemental materials , etc. and how/why you used them to shape your plan
  • Specific references to actual resources in your community that you would use or will use to fulfill your plan
  • Reflection on how your learning and participation in the course shaped your ability to create this plan
  • Discussion of what you wish to continue learning, and how you will continue to seek answers to the questions you still have.

University of Texas at Arling

You have now read a bit about the inside view of dental consumer health, science-based health care, mental health and behavioral help, the CAM movement, chiropractic consumer health, and the basic building blocks of nutrition. For this activity, an essay, you are to consider how the knowledge you have gained in this module has or is changing how you view, think about, and consider consumer health based on dentistry or nutrition.

Pick one of the following prompts to write about. Remember to use your formal writing skills (formatting APA, double spaced, New Times Roman or Arial 12 point – and – include specific references to both your experience and content from the textbook and module links.

  • Before reading the chapter about dental consumer health you had perceptions about dentistry. Some of those perceptions about dentistry were misconceptions-explain what those misconceptions were? Talk about how you identified that they were misconceptions. Specifically explain what information prompted your change in perception. Describe what you have learned and how you will use what you have learned about dentistry as a consumer.
  • OR
  • Nutrition is a large part of our lives – because we all have to eat to survive. You learned about the basics building blocks of nutrition in Module 2. Identify what was the most shocking information that you learned about basic nutrition and explain why it made such a large impact on your learning. Explain if and how that information that you learned will change your daily nutritional habits? Describe the rationale for not making or making the change in your daily nutritional habits. Based on your perception and personal experience do you believe a majority of the public understand and know the information you learned? Explain how the public would benefit from learning the information you learned from the nutrition chapter.

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Career Research Presentation

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Please note that this assignment is due on a Monday.

Now that you’ve researched the Global Health career that most interests you, create a PowerPoint presentation to share with your peers. You may just find a career that you didn’t think of and it could be something you want to pursue after finishing your studies.

Your presentation is graded on content and creativity, so please include images, graphs, infographics, etc.

Presentation Outline:

Introduction to career- 1-2 slides (include description, available agencies, etc.)

Career requirements- 1-2 slides (education, certifications, training, etc.)

Career locations- 1-2 slides

The rationale for why this career interests you- 1 slide

Internship opportunities within the career- 1-2 slides

References- 1 slide




Please note that this assignment is due on a Monday.

Now that you have learned about Global Health it’s time to explore possible career paths for this field of Public Health. Using the resources in Module 5 and your own investigative skills, find a career that most interests you in the Global Health sector. Once you select your chosen career to research, follow the outline below to develop a comprehensive research paper on that career. Your paper should be 3-5 pages in length, double-spaced, 12 point font, and in APA format. You must include at least 3 external resources in your paper. Your paper will be uploaded to Turnitin and graded based on content and originality. Papers with a similarity index of greater than 25% will receive an automatic grade deduction of 20 points and anything over 32% will receive a ‘0’. In other words, if your paper ‘borrows’ a third or more of content from other resources, your paper is two-thirds original and one-third unoriginal.

It is important to understand that many journals will not accept a similarity index above 10% and many universities consider plagiarism to be at a 25% similarity index.

The introduction:
1. An introduction to the field of Global Health.
2. A good definition of the career that most interests you.
3. The thesis statement which clearly explains the focus of the paper.

The body paragraphs:
1. The most important features of the career.
2. The nature of the job and a list of responsibilities.
3. The minimum qualification required for the purpose.
4. The challenges involved in pursuing a career.
5. A discussion of how easy or how difficult it is to find placement in the sector.
6. The number of hours you will need to dedicate and the remuneration you can expect.
7. The possibilities for growth in the career sector.
8. An explanation of why that particular career looks more appealing to you than the rest.
9. Your skills which complement the career responsibilities.
10. Your shortcomings which might come in the way of your career and how you plan to tackle those situations.

The conclusion:
1. A summary of the most relevant points.
2. Reinstatement of the thesis stated in the introduction.
3. A concluding statement that effectively winds up the discussion.

University of Texas at Arling

You have now read a bit about the inside view of dental consumer health, science-based health care, mental health and behavioral help, the CAM movement, chiropractic consumer health, and the basic building blocks of nutrition. For this activity, an essay, you are to consider how the knowledge you have gained in this module has or is changing how you view, think about, and consider consumer health based on dentistry or nutrition.

Pick one of the following prompts to write about. Remember to use your formal writing skills (formatting APA, double spaced, New Times Roman or Arial 12 point – and – include specific references to both your experience and content from the textbook and module links.

  • Before reading the chapter about dental consumer health you had perceptions about dentistry. Some of those perceptions about dentistry were misconceptions-explain what those misconceptions were? Talk about how you identified that they were misconceptions. Specifically explain what information prompted your change in perception. Describe what you have learned and how you will use what you have learned about dentistry as a consumer.
  • OR
  • Nutrition is a large part of our lives – because we all have to eat to survive. You learned about the basics building blocks of nutrition in Module 2. Identify what was the most shocking information that you learned about basic nutrition and explain why it made such a large impact on your learning. Explain if and how that information that you learned will change your daily nutritional habits? Describe the rationale for not making or making the change in your daily nutritional habits. Based on your perception and personal experience do you believe a majority of the public understand and know the information you learned? Explain how the public would benefit from learning the information you learned from the nutrition chapter.

Write a 3-5 page APA formatted, double-spaced, New Times Roman or Arial, 12 font essay with in-text references where needed to credit your sources. For a quick APA reference in citing sources see webpage at: https://apastyle.apa.org/ (Links to an external site.)

Please include a cover page that includes your name.

Modules:

  • Nutrition.gov- The link below will take you to Nutrition.gov website. As of 1-12-19, you will see a note regarding the current partial U. S. Government shutdown that may affect the updating of this website. Nonetheless the website has valuable health consumer information. For example on hte left-hand navigation bar check out the “My Plate” information. My Plate replaced the old food pyramids approach. Click on “Link” to be taken to the website for exploration. https://www.nutrition.gov
  • NIH and Chiropractic- Under the Nation Institutes of Health’s Complementary and Alternative Medicines’ information is this website about chiropractic. Click on “Link” to be taken to this very interesting website for your exploration of consumer issues and more. https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/chiropractic-in-d…
  • SAMHSA- The U. S. Department of health and Human Services’ (HHS) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) has a very good website for you to explore. There are many programs regarding substance abuse and mental health issues that can be valuable to consumers seeking information and health educators as they function as resource persons. Clink on “Link” to be taken to the SAMHSA website https://www.samhsa.gov/
  • Critical Thinking Skills for Dental Students- This article from the the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) may be of interest for dental hygiene students enrolled in this Consumer Health class. The article is about how dental students are taught critical thinking (CT) and critical thing skills (CTS). Click on “Link” to be taken to the article.
    https://www.adea.org/adeacci/Resources/Critical-Th…

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Career Research Paper

Now that you have learned about Global Health it’s time to explore possible career paths for this field of Public Health. Using the resources in Module 5 and your own investigative skills, find a career that most interests you in the Global Health sector. Once you select your chosen career to research, follow the outline below to develop a comprehensive research paper on that career. Your paper should be 3-5 pages in length, double-spaced, 12 point font, and in APA format. You must include at least 3 external resources in your paper. Your paper will be uploaded to Turnitin and graded based on content and originality. Papers with a similarity index of greater than 25% will receive an automatic grade deduction of 20 points and anything over 32% will receive a ‘0’. In other words, if your paper ‘borrows’ a third or more of content from other resources, your paper is two-thirds original and one-third unoriginal.

It is important to understand that many journals will not accept a similarity index above 10% and many universities consider plagiarism to be at a 25% similarity index.

The introduction:
1. An introduction to the field of Global Health.
2. A good definition of the career that most interests you.
3. The thesis statement which clearly explains the focus of the paper.

The body paragraphs:
1. The most important features of the career.
2. The nature of the job and a list of responsibilities.
3. The minimum qualification required for the purpose.
4. The challenges involved in pursuing a career.
5. A discussion of how easy or how difficult it is to find placement in the sector.
6. The number of hours you will need to dedicate and the remuneration you can expect.
7. The possibilities for growth in the career sector.
8. An explanation of why that particular career looks more appealing to you than the rest.
9. Your skills which complement the career responsibilities.
10. Your shortcomings which might come in the way of your career and how you plan to tackle those situations.

The conclusion:
1. A summary of the most relevant points.
2. Reinstatement of the thesis stated in the introduction.
3. A concluding statement that effectively winds up the discussion.

Career Research Presentation

Now that you’ve researched the Global Health career that most interests you, create a PowerPoint presentation to share with your peers. You may just find a career that you didn’t think of and it could be something you want to pursue after finishing your studies.

Your presentation is graded on content and creativity, so please include images, graphs, infographics, etc.

Presentation Outline:

Introduction to career- 1-2 slides (include description, available agencies, etc.)

Career requirements- 1-2 slides (education, certifications, training, etc.)

Career locations- 1-2 slides

The rationale for why this career interests you- 1 slide

Internship opportunities within the career- 1-2 slides

References- 1 slide

Module 5:

ttps://www.fic.nih.gov/Global/Pages/NGOs.aspx

https://www.fic.nih.gov/Global/Pages/training-reso…

https://www.fic.nih.gov/Global/Pages/GlobalHealthC…

https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/employment/defaul…

University of Texas at Arling

This assignment is broken down into two parts. 1.) How has this class influenced your thoughts, feelings, and assumptions on obesity compared to where they were at the onset of this course? 2.) Also, reflect on your experiences working with your client. What worked? what didn’t? What would you do differently? A total of 500 words for both questions. So about 250 words for the fist question and about 250 words for the second question. The second part of this assignment is based on a project that I had this semester. This project made me recruit someone and worked with him on a weight loss/fitness program goal. I made my project more based on a fitness goal rather than a weight loss goal. You can take a look at the Pre and post assessment pdf to see what my patient goal was before he started and what he achieved at the end. The Semester SOAP Notes has all the notes and fitness plan of my client that I wrote throughout the semester. For example, for the question what worked. You can put that having good relationship and communicating with my client(he’s my brother but lives with wife) helped. That he has soccer experience so he’s familiar with a soccer fitness program. Doing more soccer related exercises like agility drills, ball technique, and soccer skills. For what didn’t you can put that he diet plan wasn’t as good as it should’ve been. Bad eating habits on the weekend. On what would you do different. You can put that being with him and working out with him could’ve helped him. Should’ve been more stricter on a diet plan. These are just some ideas. You can use them if you want or write something else. If you look at the post assessment you can get a better picture of what worked and didn’t work. DO NOT cite any sources please. This is a discussion assignment and will post on class discussion board

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I’m working on a health & medical question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

Developing Gen Y Leaders

How important are excellent leaders to organizations? Well, the answer, in theory of course, would be very important. However, the answer as practiced by countless organizations might indicate otherwise. Only 38 percent of organizations have a formal frontline leadership development program in place. It’s important for organizations to commit to strong leadership development, and it’s particularly important for organizations to begin grooming their Gen Y employees to move into critical leadership positions. Why? Within 10 years (by 2025), these Millennials are set to comprise 75 percent of the global workforce. That’s why organizational leadership development programs are absolutely essential. Let’s look at what some companies are doing to prepare the next generation for leadership.

Excellent leaders have to be developed and cultivated.

3M’s leadership development program is so effective that it has been one of the “Top 20 Companies for Leadership” in six of the last seven years and ranks as one of the top 25 companies for grooming leadership talent according to consultant Hay Group. What is 3M’s leadership program all about? A few years ago, the company’s former CEO and his top team spent 18 months developing a leadership model for the company. After numerous brainstorming sessions and much heated debate, the group finally agreed on six “leadership attributes” that they believed were essential for managers to have in order for the company to become skilled at executing strategy and being accountable.  Those six attributes included the ability to: develop a plan and implement that plan; motivate and rouse others; be ethical and trustworthy and abide by the rules; achieve outcomes; strive for excellence; and be a capable and creative innovator. The company has continued to reinforce its pursuit of leadership excellence with these six attributes.

Other companies, such as Ernst & Young, start early in recruiting and investing in future leaders, often going after talented college freshmen who have leadership potential. They take the best talent and involve them in various leadership development programs both while in school and after graduation. Deloitte, another company rated high for its leadership development programs, is deeply committed to helping its Millennial employees learn and absorb the leadership skills they will need to lead the company in the future. It starts with a very specific recruiting strategy for hiring Millennials and continues with a yearlong “Welcome to Deloitte” program. This program is all about teaching this age group client-management skills and team-building skills, and offering professional development opportunities. And, not surprisingly, it’s done largely through social media using interactive experiences such as role-plays, simulations, games, and a tool to help these employees track their first-year tasks.

At Facebook, the first Millennial-run organization to become a Fortune 500 company, leadership development is designed around the needs of a fast-moving, fast-growing company. The head of leadership development at Facebook says that the only way leadership development works there is by making it consistent with the types of engineering tech types that comprise the company. Engineers are concerned only with “what works.” And it’s the same for any type of leadership development to be successful here; the focus has to be on what works. Also, since Facebook is an extremely flat organization with few levels of management, employees find out early on that in order to get anything done, they’re going to have to be able to influence and inspire people. That’s why leaders at Facebook don’t have to be convinced of the need for people skills. They won’t survive long without them.

  1. Why do you think that there’s a huge gap in theory (what we know we should do) and practice (what we’re actually doing) of leadership development?
  2. What are some reasons that companies might not be addressing Gen Y leadership development programs?
  3. Three different types of organizations are described here: 3M is primarily a manufacturing organization. Ernst & Young and Deloitte are professional services organizations. Facebook is a tech company. Compare and contrast their differing approaches to Gen Y leadership development.

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Résumé Regrets

Human resource (HR) managers say that 53 percent of résumés and job applications contain falsification, and 21 percent of résumé falsification state a fraudulent degree. In this age of digital and social media, it’s hard to imagine anyone falsifying their records, much less someone who’s in a company’s top position as CEO.

After a thorough search, Scott Thompson was named as Yahoo!’s CEO in early 2012. Prior to his appointment at Yahoo!, Thompson was president of PayPal, and prior to that he was PayPal’s chief technology officer. Thompson replaced Carol Bartz, a well-known computer industry executive, who, after two years on the job, had been unable to resolve Yahoo!’s troubles. In his first months on the job, Thompson formulated a strategic plan for turning around the company, including a massive layoff of employees. Then, the whole situation started to unravel. An activist investor sent a letter to Yahoo!’s board of directors expressing concern about an SEC regulatory filing signed by Thompson “that stated to the best of his knowledge its contents were accurate.” That document said that Thompson had earned a college degree in accounting and computer science in 1979 from a small university south of Boston. The activist investor said he had reason to believe that the degree was in accounting only. And, come to find out, the university didn’t have a computer science program until the early 1980s and school officials confirmed that Mr. Thompson received a bachelor’s of science degree in business administration. The activist investor questioned if Thompson had embellished his academic credentials and if the board had failed to exercise due “diligence and oversight in one of its most important tasks—identifying and hiring the chief executive officer.”

Would YOU lie on a résumé to get a job you want? 70 percent of college

students said they would!

After all this came down, a person close to the company said that, “In the absence of evidence that Mr. Thompson actively misled Yahoo! about his résumé, Yahoo!’s directors likely won’t force him out. Maintaining him as CEO of Yahoo! at this time is more important than whether he had a computer science degree or not.” And at first, that was the stance Yahoo!’s board took. However, the controversy continued to grow. In a meeting with senior Yahoo! officials, Thompson said he “regretted not finding an error in his public biography.” He then suggested that maybe an executive search firm might have inserted this information more than seven years earlier. Yet, this blame game backfired. Some of his comments ended up on tech blogs, which angered the search firm, which produced documents from Mr. Thompson showing his inaccurate biography. As one person close to the situation said, “The cover-up became worse than the crime.” Not long after, Thompson ended up resigning his position. Although the board did not give him severance pay, he did get to keep $7 million of the cash and stock he received when appointed to the position. Not a bad haul for only four months’ work. (Epilogue: Thompson was replaced by Marissa Mayer, whom we introduced in

Case Application #1 in Chapter 6)

Prepare a 2-page paper answering the following questions.Remember, use 10-12 pt font and APA format!Feel free to bring in outside data/sources, but please provide citations and a list of references.

1.What does this story tell you about the importance of checking a job applicant’s

2.background?

3.What stakeholders are affected when an executive has inaccuracies in his or her résumé? How might they be affected?

4.Look at the statistics in the first paragraph of this story. Are you surprised by them? Why or why not?

5.What can you learn from this story (a) personally and (b) professionally?

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Hello class,

The lung cancer case study is due Sunday, April 25th, and here are some tips.

Here’s some information to assist you with questions on the last case study. Be sure to include all equations with your answers.

#4. Where else (besides a hospital) could cases be found? Where else might you find controls for this study (besides in a hospital)? Use Ch 6 to assist you in answering these.

#7. This question is asking if hospitalized patients (w/o lung cancer) are closely matched to the general population (w/o lung cancer). Explain your answer. (Hint: Look at the percentage you get for controls who smoked. Is this exposure level something you’d see [even back then] in the general population?)

#8. This question is mainly getting at this: Even if not as high as the cases (lung cancer pts), if the controls have a very high exposure level (smoking), then how might this affect the results for this case-control study (Odds Ratio)?

#9. Here’s the equation for proportion of cases who smoked: 1522/1530 x 100 = 99.48% Do the same for proportion of controls who smoked.

#11. The odds of smoking for the cases is: 1522/8 = 190.25:1 Do the same for the odds of smoking for the controls.

#12. Divide the odds to get the OR. You’re also asked to do the ‘cross-product ratio’. This is just another term for the equation you’ve used for the Odds Ratio from Ch. 6. Set up your 2×2 and see if you come up with the same OR from that equation. Post both equations and answers for this.

#14. You’ll end up with 4 Odds Ratios on this one. One for each dosage of cigarettes (1-14; 15-24; 25+; and ALL). These are NOT age categories; they are dosage (# of cigarettes smoked/day). Set up your 2×2 table for each category. Your ‘no exposure’ row (0 cigarettes) will be the same for all the 2×2 tables.

#15. Look at the 4 different ORs and note any differences by dosage. Is there a dose-response relationship between exposure and disease? #16. This question relates to things you learned in Ch. 10 that could affect the results of a study (like certain types of bias). Name some of the factors.

#18. The mortality rate in the cohort section is the ‘incidence rate’. The person-years is the population size. So, for the mortality rate for those who smoked 1-14 cigarettes (Table 3), you would take 23 / 38,600 x 1000. This gives you a mortality rate of 0.60/1000 person-years. #18. Rate Ratio is another term for Relative Risk. To find this, you would take the mortality rate among the exposed and divide by the mortality rate among the nonexposed. For the 1-14 cigarette group, this would be 0.60 divided by 0.07 (mortality rate among the nonexposed). #18. Rate Difference is the same as Risk Difference. For the 1-14 cigarette group, you would find this by subtracting 0.07 from 0.60 (incidence among exposed – incidence among the nonexposed).

#19. This proportion is called ‘attributable risk percent’ or the more recognized (from your book ~ Ch 9) term of ‘etiologic fraction’. Since there are two different equations you could use for EF, you would either use the mortality rate or the RR for ‘All Smokers’ from #18 in your equation.

#20. You’ll take the number of deaths among All Smokers (from Table 3) and multiply that by your answer for #19 (EF%). This is the number of deaths that could have been averted if no one had smoked.

#21. Since RR is the strongest measure of association, use those numbers to determine which disease has a stronger association with smoking. Use the AR% (EF) as your second reason. Explain your answer.

#22. Population attributable risk percent is the same as ‘population etiologic fraction’ (from Ch. 9). You would use the mortality rate for ‘All’ for these calculations (given in Table 4). There will be two equations for your answer (Lung Cancer & CVD) and don’t forget to answer the compare/differ questions, as well.

#23. Multiply your answers from #22 times the Mortality Rate for ‘ALL’ from Table 4. You’ll do this for both lung cancer and CVD. Your answers will be followed by “lung cancer (or CVD) deaths per 1000 person-years”.

#24. Use the RRs from Table 5 to help you in answering this question. Note the differences in RRs among Current Smokers, Ex-Smokers (by years since quitting), and Non-Smokers (never smoked). Then discuss what this implies for public health and preventive medicine. #26. Answer the first question as to which study design has the largest sample size, costs more, and takes longer to complete. The remaining factors are answered as advantage/disadvantage.

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Here’s some information to assist you with questions on the last case study. Be sure to include all equations with your answers.

#4. Where else (besides a hospital) could cases be found? Where else might you find controls for this study (besides in a hospital)? Use Ch 6 to assist you in answering these.

#7. This question is asking if hospitalized patients (w/o lung cancer) are closely matched to the general population (w/o lung cancer). Explain your answer. (Hint: Look at the percentage you get for controls who smoked. Is this exposure level something you’d see [even back then] in the general population?)

#8. This question is mainly getting at this: Even if not as high as the cases (lung cancer pts), if the controls have a very high exposure level (smoking), then how might this affect the results for this case-control study (Odds Ratio)?

#9. Here’s the equation for proportion of cases who smoked: 1522/1530 x 100 = 99.48% Do the same for proportion of controls who smoked.

#11. The odds of smoking for the cases is: 1522/8 = 190.25:1 Do the same for the odds of smoking for the controls.

#12. Divide the odds to get the OR. You’re also asked to do the ‘cross-product ratio’. This is just another term for the equation you’ve used for the Odds Ratio from Ch. 6. Set up your 2×2 and see if you come up with the same OR from that equation. Post both equations and answers for this.

#14. You’ll end up with 4 Odds Ratios on this one. One for each dosage of cigarettes (1-14; 15-24; 25+; and ALL). These are NOT age categories; they are dosage (# of cigarettes smoked/day). Set up your 2×2 table for each category. Your ‘no exposure’ row (0 cigarettes) will be the same for all the 2×2 tables.

#15. Look at the 4 different ORs and note any differences by dosage. Is there a dose-response relationship between exposure and disease? #16. This question relates to things you learned in Ch. 10 that could affect the results of a study (like certain types of bias). Name some of the factors.

#18. The mortality rate in the cohort section is the ‘incidence rate’. The person-years is the population size. So, for the mortality rate for those who smoked 1-14 cigarettes (Table 3), you would take 23 / 38,600 x 1000. This gives you a mortality rate of 0.60/1000 person-years. #18. Rate Ratio is another term for Relative Risk. To find this, you would take the mortality rate among the exposed and divide by the mortality rate among the nonexposed. For the 1-14 cigarette group, this would be 0.60 divided by 0.07 (mortality rate among the nonexposed). #18. Rate Difference is the same as Risk Difference. For the 1-14 cigarette group, you would find this by subtracting 0.07 from 0.60 (incidence among exposed – incidence among the nonexposed).

#19. This proportion is called ‘attributable risk percent’ or the more recognized (from your book ~ Ch 9) term of ‘etiologic fraction’. Since there are two different equations you could use for EF, you would either use the mortality rate or the RR for ‘All Smokers’ from #18 in your equation.

#20. You’ll take the number of deaths among All Smokers (from Table 3) and multiply that by your answer for #19 (EF%). This is the number of deaths that could have been averted if no one had smoked.

#21. Since RR is the strongest measure of association, use those numbers to determine which disease has a stronger association with smoking. Use the AR% (EF) as your second reason. Explain your answer.

#22. Population attributable risk percent is the same as ‘population etiologic fraction’ (from Ch. 9). You would use the mortality rate for ‘All’ for these calculations (given in Table 4). There will be two equations for your answer (Lung Cancer & CVD) and don’t forget to answer the compare/differ questions, as well.

#23. Multiply your answers from #22 times the Mortality Rate for ‘ALL’ from Table 4. You’ll do this for both lung cancer and CVD. Your answers will be followed by “lung cancer (or CVD) deaths per 1000 person-years”.

#24. Use the RRs from Table 5 to help you in answering this question. Note the differences in RRs among Current Smokers, Ex-Smokers (by years since quitting), and Non-Smokers (never smoked). Then discuss what this implies for public health and preventive medicine. #26. Answer the first question as to which study design has the largest sample size, costs more, and takes longer to complete. The remaining factors are answered as advantage/disadvantage.

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