University of Dayton Module 6

The answers for these questions can be found in your readings and videos. Each answer should be at least five sentences long and answer all parts of the question. Each question is worth 2 points.

  1. What is the Protestant Reformation? Who was behind it and how did it change both art and society in Europe in the 16th century?
  2. What is Mannerism? Why is it called the “stylish style?” Who was the primary audience for this style?
  3. Give one example of a work in the Mannerist style and discuss how it is different from the art of the High Renaissance.
  4. How did Giambologna’s Abduction of the Sabine Women continue the ideas of Humanism that had been developed in the Early and High Renaissance while at the same time changing the nature of sculpture?
  5. Certain of the religious scenes that were done in the Mannerist style were criticized or rejected as in appropriate. Why do you think this was the case? HERE IS THE READING AND THE VIDEOS FOR IT : In Italy, the end of the High Renaissance is traditionally marked by the death of Raphael in 1520 but things had already started to fall apart before his death. With the start of the Protestant Reformation in 1517, the Church in Rome was in a state of great unease.The roots of the Protestant Reformation came from the desire of many people, like the monk Martin Luther, to see the Church in Rome reform their ways. At its roots are the ideas of “protest” and “reform.” Luther believed that the Church had lost its way and that it needed to return to the idea of faith and the word of the Bible. In his view, and others like him, the Church had become only interested in the materialistic things. Remember that this is the time of Julius II and his lavish spending on building and decoration that was to raise the prestige of both the Church and himself, as the head of the Church. It is also the time when Julius II was using the selling of indulgences (a way to buy your way into heaven more quickly) to raise money for his projects. Luther and others saw this as sinful and protested and called for reform. The pope (no longer Julius by this point – he died in 1513) and the Church refused to reform forcing Luther and others to pull away from the Church and form their own versions of Christianity. Remember that beginning in the 300s C.E. when Christianity was recognized as a legitimate religion in the Roman world by Roman Emperor Constantine up to this point (1517) there had only been one Christian Church in the West, with its center in Rome. What the Protestant Reformation resulted in was the formation of many new variations on Christianity and the Christian faith. From this point on the Church in Rome will be referred to as the Catholic Church while the Protestant faiths will go by a number of names like Lutheranism, Calvinism, the Anabaptists, and the Church of England to name a few. The differences between the Catholic and Protestant faiths are numerous and complicated but of most importance to art was that the Protestants did not believe in using art in the faith. Since the beginning of Christianity the church had used images to communicate religious ideas to the faithful who were often illiterate and could not read the Bible but learned the important ideas of the faith through the images. The Protestants believed that images were a distraction and unnecessary – what was important was the written word. To this end, images were banned in Protestant churches and the production of Bibles, due to the invention of the printing press, was rapidly increased to serve the needs of these faiths. The reliance on the reading the Bible also increased literacy, especially in the north where the Protestant Reformation really took hold. In countries that remained loyal to the Catholic Church, especially Southern European countries like Italy and Spain and more northern areas like France, the church continued to believe that images were key to communicating religious beliefs. With the advent of the Protestant Reformation Europe entered a period of religious upheaval, resulting in religious wars between Christians and a sense that the world was no longer the stable place that it once had been. In terms of art the impact was also great – with the Church out of the picture in terms of being a major patron of the arts in the north (as it had been since the beginning of Christianity) artists in Protestant countries had to find new patrons. The new patrons were found in the growing upper and middle classes of the north, mainly merchants involved in a growing global trade, who desired art that reflected their own lives. This will result in an explosion of portraiture and the creation of a wide range of new subjects not based in religion – like landscapes, still lives, and scenes of everyday activities and life. Be sure to watch the video on Luther and the Protestant Reformation for more discussion of this momentous event in European history. Of course, the Church in Rome did not believe that the Protestant Reformation would lead to anything significant but nonetheless the Pope and others were worried. The stability and idealism of the High Renaissance dissolved into doubt and concern. The power of Rome declined in these years as they struggled to deal with the threat to their control of the faith. In 1527, the city of Rome was sacked by the forces of Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V (King of Spain and leader of the northern Habsburg dynasty). At this point the power of the papacy was reduced significantly as Charles V became the most powerful figure in Europe at this time. Eventually, the papacy will re-establish some of its power and control and by 1545 the pope at the time, Clement VII, convened the Council of Trent which was designed to advise the Catholic Church on how to reform itself and regain some of its followers – this will become known as the “Counter-Reformation.” While the Catholic Church was somewhat successful in their reform it came too late to reconcile with the Protestants. While all of this was going on in Rome, the city of Florence saw an opportunity to re-assert itself as a power. After the turmoil in Florence at the end of the 15th century the city became a strong republican government (ruled by representatives of the people), celebrated in works like Michelangelo’s David. But Florence also suffered some doubt and unease after the beginnings of the Protestant Reformation and the idealism and balance and harmony of the High Renaissance style faded in the 1520s. What replaced the High Renaissance style is a style known as “Mannerism.” In 1512, members of the Medici family were invited back into Florence not just as an important merchant family but now as rulers of Florence. In 1527, the Medici were again expelled from Florence only to return again in 1532 when they were granted the title of Duke of Florence. In 1569, Duke Cosimo I was elevated to the rank of Grand Duke of Tuscany. The Medici family became the official rulers and set up a Duchy over which they ruled for the next century and a half. During this time they established an aristocratic court of great wealth, sophistication and education. The preferred style of art for much of the 16th century in the Medici court was Mannerism. Mannerism, also known as the “stylish style” because of its high level of technical skill, extreme elegance, and complex meanings, was a style that developed out of the High Renaissance. Artists using this style often referenced High Renaissance works and wanted to show their audience that they were highly skilled painters. The main audience for this type of art was the members of the aristocratic court, many of whom were educated as Humanists and were knowledgeable of ancient history and mythology. Mannerist art was really an artistic style for the elites of the court who enjoyed the skill of the artists along with references that only an educated class would understand. Early artists of the Mannerist style, like Pontormo in his Entombment/Deposition, created religious scenes of great elegance and with some emotional content. Later Mannerist artists, whether painting religious scenes like Parmigianino’s Madonna of the Long Neck, or Bronzino’s mythologically-inspired painting of the Allegory of Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time (pictured above), created for the Medici Duke, moved away from any emotional content and focused more on style.Mannerism also appeared in sculpture, like Giambologna’s Abduction of the Sabine Women (be sure to read about this), and in decorative arts produced for the Medici court like this salt cellar designed by Benvenuto Cellini in 1543.This gold and enamel salt cellar was designed for use on a banquet table and was both elegant and somewhat erotic – characteristics that seem to have appealed to the members of this aristocratic court and that were typical of the Mannerist style. It was intended as a gift for Francis I of France and his royal court.Some of the biggest criticisms of the Mannerist style was its lack of emotional content and its elitist subject matter. As the Catholic Church began its reform in the middle of the 16th century the Mannerist style was identified as a style that had no place in the reform movement. Instead, the Council of Trent issued new guidelines for art that they believed would better serve the needs of the Counter-Reformation Catholic Church and the Mannerist style fell out of favor by the end of the century. Luther and the Protestant Reformation. A beginner’s guide to Mannerism. Pontormo, Entombment/ Deposition. Pontormo, The Deposition (Example of Close Looking) Pontormo from Drawing to Painting
  6. Parmigianino, Madonna of the Long Neck Agnolo Bronzino, An Allegory with Venus and Cupid
  7. Bronzino and the Mannerist PortraitBronzino,
  8. Portrait of Eleonora di Toledo with her son Giovanni
  9. Giambologna,Abduction of a Sabine Woman
  10. Jacopo Tintoretto, Last Supper
  11. * ALSO THERE IS ANOTHER assignment SHOULD BE IN ANOTHER PAPER Choose two Italian Renaissance works of the same subject and compose a paper in which you discuss each work, comparing and contrasting them in terms of function, style, and meaning. Be sure to address why this pairing of works makes for a thought-provoking pairing that speaks to significant aspects of Italian Renaissance art, its production, and its reception.This paper should be in essay format and include at least two references (one for each work) from the material of the class. It should be a minimum of two pages in length.
  12. * ALSO THERE IS ANOTHER ONE SHOULD BE IN ANOTHER PAPAER
  13. Please answer both of the following questions. The answers, at least one page long, should be written in essay form and should address all parts of the question. Be sure to cite sources if you are borrowing directly or quoting something from something you have read or seen in the assigned material. Also, be sure to provide examples of works of art from the material, if requested. 1. What are the similarities and differences between Giotto’s Ognissanti Madonna and Parmigianino’s Madonna of the Long Neck? Be sure to consider style, time period, and intent of the artist in your essay.2. The Italian Renaissance is often described as the birth of art in the Western world. Choose one 20th or 21st century work of art and argue for its connection to the art of the Italian Renaissance. Be sure to include an image of your modern work with your answer.
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