Trident University The Health

Item 1

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

As a further example, APT queries and their results may be used to form rules for expert systems that become part of an intelligent computer-based instructional system. Such a system theoretically can optimize student learning by recommending instructional sequences (i.e., temporal patterns) that have high probabilities of resulting in student mastery. In other words, APT-based decision making by a computer program can provide an empirical foundation for artificial intelligence.

References:
Frick, T. W. (1990). Analysis of patterns in time: A method of recording and quantifying temporal relations in education. American Educational Research Journal, 27(1), 180-204.

One way that learning can be personalized is through the use of computers to aid in “recommending instructional sequences (i.e., temporal patterns) that have high probabilities of resulting in student mastery” (Frick, 1990, p. 202). However, the ability for computers to make appropriate decisions about instructional strategies is limited, in part, by the quality of information they have access to.

References:
Frick, T. W. (1990). Analysis of patterns in time: A method of recording and quantifying temporal relations in education. American Educational Research Journal, 27(1), 180-204.

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Item 2

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a desperate need for theorists and researchers to generate and refine a new breed of learning-focused instructional design theories that help educators and trainers to meet those needs, (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity). The health of instructional-design theory also depends on its ability to involve stakeholders in the design process.

Reference 1:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional-design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. II, pp. 5-29). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Original Source Material 2
By instruction I mean any deliberate arrangement of events to facilitate a learner’s acquisition of some goal. The goal can range from knowledge to skills to strategies to attitudes, and so on.

Reference 2
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Driscoll (2000) defines instruction broadly as “any deliberate arrangement of events to facilitate a learner’s acquisition of some goal” (p. 25). In order to increase the effectiveness of instruction, there is a critical need for the creation and refinement of instructional design theories to aid those who seek to promote learning. According to Reigeluth (1999), “The health of instructional-design theory also depends on its ability to involve stakeholders in the design process” (p. 27).

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional-design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. II, pp. 5-29). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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Item 3

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

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Student Version

The patterns which control a portion of the world, are themselves fairly simple. But when they interact, they create slightly different overall configurations at every place. This happens because no two places on earth are perfectly alike in their conditions. And each small difference, itself contributes to the difference in conditions which the other patterns face.

References:
Alexander, C. (1979). The timeless way of building (Vol. 1). New York, NY: Oxford University Press USA.

Alexander connects simple patterns to the apparent complexity that seems to surround us. The fact that no two places on earth are perfectly alike means that when simple patterns interact they create slightly different overall configurations at every place. This is analogous to the way that the result of math equation can be changed using different variables.

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Item 4

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

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Student Version

The way the U.S. judicial system works, a defendant is first found to be innocent or guilty. The punishment sentence is determined only after a defendant has been found guilty. It might seem that this is a relatively minor procedural issue. Yet, the order of this decision-making can mean the difference between life and death, or even between conviction and acquittal.

References:
Dixit, A. K., & Nalebuff, B. J. (1991).Thinking strategically: The competitive edge in business, politics, and everyday life. New York, NY: Norton.

Innocent or guilty courtroom decisions are often high-stakes. However, the precise consequences of the verdict is unknown in U.S. judicial systems when the guilt versus innocence decision is being made. Dixit and Nalebuff (1991) explain that this order of decision-making “can mean the difference between life and death, or even between conviction and acquittal” (p. 270).

References:
Dixit, A. K., & Nalebuff, B. J. (1991).Thinking strategically: The competitive edge in business, politics, and everyday life. New York, NY: Norton.

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Item 5

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

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Merck, in fact, epitomizes the ideological nature–the pragmatic idealism–of highly visionary companies. Our research showed that a fundamental element in the “ticking clock” of a visionary company is a core ideology–core values and a sense of purpose beyond just making money–that guides and inspires people throughout the organization and remains relatively fixed for long periods of time.

References:
Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (2002). Built to last: Successful habits of visionary companies. New York, NY: Harper Paperbacks.

Several factors can contribute to long-term organizational success. One is the establishment of a core ideology that Collins and Porras (2002) describe as “core values and sense of purpose beyond just making money” (p. 48). Also, the importance of a visionary leader that guides and inspires people throughout the organization and remains relatively fixed for long periods of time is hard to over emphasize.

References:
Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (2002). Built to last: Successful habits of visionary companies. New York, NY: Harper Paperbacks.

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Item 6

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Suppose you study a group of successful companies and you find that they emphasize customer focus, or quality improvement, or empowerment; how do you know that you haven’t merely discovered the management practice equivalent of having buildings? How do you know that you’ve discovered something that distinguishes the successful companies from other companies? You don’t know. You can’t know–not unless you have a control set, a comparison group.

References:
Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (2002). Built to last: Successful habits of visionary companies. New York, NY: Harper Paperbacks.

One has to ask oneself how you know that you’ve discovered something that distinguishes the successful companies from other companies? Otherwise, you can fall into a trap that is the same as identifying “the management practice equivalent of having buildings” (Collins & Porras, 2002, p. 14).

References:
Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (2002). Built to last: Successful habits of visionary companies. New York, NY: Harper Paperbacks.

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Item 7

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

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Student Version

Many physical education and health curricula have been developed to foster active, healthy lifestyles through various learning outcomes and objectives. Although such a goal may be desired and valued by our society, ways to achieve this goal are less understood. If elementary physical education is to assist children in developing skills and understanding that will serve as the foundation for future activities, then educators at all levels need to develop ways to foster these skills and understanding across numerous types of activities.

References:
Mandigo, J. L., & Anderson, A. T. (2003). Using the pedagogical principles in net/wall games to enhance teaching effectiveness. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 14(1), 8-11.

While society may broadly appreciate and desire educational objectives that can help people lead healthy lives, the exact approaches necessary to reach these desired outcomes are not well understood. Mandigo and Anderson (2003) highlight the need for educators “to develop ways to foster these skills and understandings across numerous types of activities” (p. 8) as an important step towards making this desire a reality.

References:
Mandigo, J. L., & Anderson, A. T. (2003). Using the pedagogical principles in net/wall games to enhance teaching effectiveness. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 14(1), 8-11.

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Item 8

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

But what are reasonable outcomes of the influence of global processes on education? While the question of how global processes influence all aspects of education (and who controls these forces) is multidimensional and not completely testable, there appear to be some theories of globalization as it relates to education that can be empirically examined.

References:
Rutkowski, L., & Rutkowski, D. (2009). Trends in TIMSS responses over time: Evidence of global forces in education? Educational Research and Evaluation, 15(2), 137-152.

The question of “how global processes influence all aspects of education (and who controls these forces) is multidimensional and not completely testable but there appear to be some theories of globalization as it relates to education that can be empirically examined” (Rutkowski and Rutkowski, 2009, p.138).

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Item 9

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

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Student Version

We shall take the simpleminded view that a theory is just a model of the universe, or a restricted part of it, and a set of rules that relate quantities in the model to observations that we make. It exists only in our minds and does not have any other reality (whatever that might mean). A theory is a good theory if it satisfies two requirements. It must accurately describe a large class of observations on the basis of a model that contains only a few arbitrary elements, and it must make definite predictions about the results of future observations.

References:
Hawking, S., & Mlodinow, L. (2008). A briefer history of time (Reprint.). New York, NY: Bantam.

When asked if they believe in theory of evolution or that human activity is contributing to climate change, politicians sometimes reply “It’s just a theory.” Sure a theory is just a model of the universe, or a restricted part of it, and a set of rules that relate quantities in the model to observations that we make. While proposing a theory is easy, coming up with a good theory is much harder.

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Item 10

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

But what are reasonable outcomes of the influence of global processes on education? While the question of how global processes influence all aspects of education (and who controls these forces) is multidimensional and not completely testable, there appear to be some theories of globalization as it relates to education that can be empirically examined.

References:
Rutkowski, L., & Rutkowski, D. (2009). Trends in TIMSS responses over time: Evidence of global forces in education? Educational Research and Evaluation, 15(2), 137-152.

Rutkowski and Rutkowski (2009) ask “what are reasonable outcomes of the influence of global processes on education?” (p. 138). This question is not entirely testable and has multiple dimensions but theories of globalization’s impact on education exist and provide means of empirical analysis.

References:
Rutkowski, L., & Rutkowski, D. (2009). Trends in TIMSS responses over time: Evidence of global forces in education? Educational Research and Evaluation, 15(2), 137-152.

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