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– American yawp:…

– Reconstruction Video:

– Documentary:…

Assignment #16: Reconstruction

Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) was the 16th president of the United States. Self-educated, Lincoln had a knack for asking the right questions about important issues, such as slavery and war, and then examining all sides of the arguments before coming to a conclusion.

Lincoln’s election as president in 1860 led to the secession in 1861 of southern slave-owning states and to a 4-year civil war that cost approx. 600,000 American lives, North and South. Although Lincoln had long agreed that slavery should be permitted in the states where it was already legal, in the course of the Civil War he concluded that if slavery is immoral, then it should not be legal at all in the United States. Lincoln also realized that taking a position on issues was not simply an intellectual exercise but should have real-life consequences. A man of action as well as strong principles, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, freeing slaves in the rebellious states.

Section A: Analysis of Abraham Lincoln 

Was Lincoln’s decision to stand by his conclusion that slavery should be illegal a wise one, given that it escalated the hostilities in the Civil War? Are there times when it is best, from the point of view of critical thinking, to back down on an argument rather than risk conflict?

Section B: Reaction to Documentary

How was America affected by the assassination of President Lincoln?  What else did you learn from the video about this tragic event?

Section C: American Yawp and Video 

Please select (at least) one of the following options:

Option #01: What are some of the struggles the south faced after the civil war?  How does reconstruction impact the African-American community? Please reference at least 3 specific examples from your American Yawp textbook.

Option #02: What are some of the struggles the south faced after the civil war?  How does reconstruction impact the African-American community? Please share at least 3 specific examples from the video on Reconstruction.

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Watch and post!  3 posts, each 150 words or more.  Does this video surprise you?  Do you support a different type of taxation?  Should the IRS be eliminated?  Why would anyone or any group be opposed to making the tax laws easier to follow? What is an “ideal” way to tax?  Just a few questions to get you standard!

this is the first one 

This video serves as a great eye opener to just how corrupt the taxing system is. It is unnecessarily difficult for one to file taxes when in actuality, this difficulty serves no purpose other than filling the pockets of independent corporations. Return free filing should most certainly be a readily available feature for all Americans, just as it is in other countries, but unfortunately in typical American fashion this system is curtained off from the American public because it does not align with the interests of tax convenience businesses. Companies like H&R Block paying money to block bills that would make life easier for the American people is a pretty egregious act yet you never hear anyone shaming it. It has become too normal for us to accept that businesses are putting their own interest over the public. Return free filing should be passed and taxes should be made more convenient for all involved, considering we’re the ones paying them.

the second one:

This video absolutely surprises me, I had no clue that the government was able to offer return free filing, a concept I most definitely support. With return free filing, the federal government and IRS calculate your taxes for you and send you a bill, and you check their work. Typically it’s the other way around with you having to fill out W-2’s, 1099’s and things of that nature for the IRS to check once they receive, miscalculations, even accidental can result in extreme consequences. I personally do believe that the IRS should be eliminated, although taxes are typically used by city’s and town surrounding tax payers many tax dollars are used for things that do not benefit citizens such as investment in foreign countries, foreign aid, and certain government developments and organizations.

The University of Texas at Da

Assignment #12: Women’s Suffrage and Reform Movements

Lecture video (can skip through to find points):…

Documentary (can watch only the parts asked about):…

American yawp:…

Section A: Professor’s Lecture

Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) was a social activist and leader in the early women’s rights movement. In 1840, when she was a young newlywed, Stanton attended the World Anti-Slavery Society convention in London, which her husband was attending as a delegate. It was there that Stanton met Lucretia Mott (1793-1880). At the convention, the women delegates from the United States were denied seats after some of the male U.S. delegates vehemently objected. Mott, in response, demanded that she be treated with the same respect accorded any man—white or black. During these heated discussions, Stanton marveled at the way Mott, a woman of forty-seven, held her own in the argument, “skillfully parried all their attacks…turning the laugh on them, and then by her earnestness and dignity silencing their ridicule and jeers.”

Following the Civil War, Stanton refused to support the passage of the 15th amendment, which gave voting rights to black men but not to women. She argued that the amendment essentially was based on the fallacy of false dilemma—either black men get the vote (but not women) or only white men can vote. Instead, she pointed out that there was a third option: both men and women should have the right to vote. Unfortunately, her line of argument and her challenges to traditional beliefs about the role of women were ridiculed. Although black men received the vote in 1870 with passage of the 15th amendment, it would be another 50 years before women were given the right to vote in the United States. Nevertheless, Stanton’s persistence and refusal to back down in her fight for equal opportunity for women paved the way for the final passage of this amendment so that other women could achieve their life plans of equal participation in the political life of the country.

What else did you learn in this lecture? In what ways did women play a vital role in the Reform movements of the 1800s? Please share 2-3 examples and reflect on them.

Section B: Reflections on Documentary

What is your impression of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in the documentary? Can you begin to see why it took so long for women to be considered US citizens and not the property of men? What does Susan B. Anthony mean by “Failure is impossible” when it comes to women’s suffrage?

Elizabeth Cady Stanton had close friends such as Lucretia Mott and Susan B. Anthony in her fight for women’s rights. Discuss ways in which having a support network of people who are skilled critical thinkers can enhance your ability not to use or fall for faulty reasoning. Discuss ways in which you do, or could serve as a critical-thinking mentor to others.

Section C: Howard Zinn and American Yawp Textbook

Option #02: What other reform movements did you learn about in the American Yawp textbook? How does the Great Awakening and the role of religion play a role in these reform movements? Please provide specific examples from the chapter.

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I’m working on a Literature exercise and need support.

Assignment #10: The Market Revolution

lecture(can just skip through):…

american yawp:…

the market revolution video:

Section A: Professor’s Lecture

Have you ever considered how much technology shapes our lives today? I often find myself a little too attached to my smartphone these days, considering I can check email, the weather, update my social media status, double-check my calendar, jot down to-do lists, take a quick photo and post it almost immediately on the Internet, text with friends that live in other states and countries and the thousands of other applications that are possible, I have not even dared to try and download onto my phone!

Do you remember a time when cell phones first came into the market? I remember how expensive the minutes were, but I insisted on getting a phone for “emergencies only.” And nowadays I cannot seem to go more than a few moments without having to check my phone or send a text message to someone. What about those of us that went to school without the Internet or even a computer? And with technology advancing so fast every few months, do you often find it difficult to stay abreast of all this new innovation?

So now consider how people must have felt about technology in the early 1800s. Share 2-3 things you learned from the Professor’s lecture. Compared to the early colonies in the 1600s, technology was beginning to make new inroads into American society.

Section B: American Yawp Textbook and Video

Please select (at least) one of the following options:

Options #01: What exactly is a Market Revolution? How has technology changed the landscape and attitudes in American society in the early 1800s? What are three new things you learn from the video?

Section C: Personal Reflections

Are you familiar with poetry slams? These are public performances of original poetry and have actually revitalized interest in poetry, especially among the African-American and Hispanic communities. After watching Preach perform the poem “Cotton,” what are some of the issues you think Preach struggles with?

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Assignment #09: Washington to Jefferson

American yawp:…


Assignment #09: Washington to Jefferson

Section A: Professor’s Lecture: Analysis of American Presidents

What is your impression of the first three American Presidents? Can you see how their presidencies helped to shape the country? Compare and contrast each of the three presidents. Which one was more successful at their leadership? Why? Who struggled the most as president?

Section B: American Yawp Textbook and Video

Please select (at least) one of the following options:

Option #01: What are three new things you learned in the American Yawp textbook that you did not know or were not aware of? Why do you think they are important for us to know?

Option #02: What about your reaction to the video? What are three new things you learned from it? What does “Jefferson’s Vision” mean?

Section C: Personal Reflections

Imagine if we could teleport Thomas Jefferson to the present day. Other than the most obvious things, how do you think Jefferson would have reacted to our country’s treatment of the US Constitution? What about the treatment of farmers and our views on whom we consider successful in this country?

I personally think he would have loved the Internet and the use of computers for writing. The idea of saving your words and making multiple copies would be something to catch his attention. Did you know that Jefferson was also an architect and inventor? (As many of the founding fathers were). He invented a device that would hold a quill (pen and ink) and write a duplicate letter as the person wrote. This is why we know so much about the founding fathers and this time in our US history. They kept copies of just about every correspondence, contract, or law. I suspect they had an idea that the future generations would be curious about them.

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Please watch this video and then comment on what you got out of it.  Does this make the term “Invisible Hand” more understandable to you?  What did you like about this video?  Was it easy to follow and understand?  Was there something that you did not like or that confused you?

Response 1

This video’s poem was quite entertaining to watch and listen to. This video made the term more understandable for me. At first I was kind of lost on that term but now I can see that it means an unseen force that kind of moves and betters the economy and market. I really enjoyed the graphics and visuals on this video. I really liked how it gave visuals for what the poet was talking about. I also liked how it was a poem because it made it easier to understand. It was also pretty easy to follow and understand because it was short and simple and active. Only thing that really confused me was that it was fast paced, I had to watch it twice to get a better understanding of what the poet was saying. Some stuff I would hear and think about for a second or two, then the poet would go on to a next topic. Did that happen to you guys as well? Or is it just me.

Response 2

It’s a Wonderful Loaf is a great example of putting things that we take for granted into perspective in an easy and understandable way. Something as simple as bread, that we all can get each and every day if we so choose, has so much more complexity to it than we realize. Every now and then something comes along and reminds us quickly how these simple things can go away however. I immediately thought of covid-19 of course, as most people experienced panic buyers and shortages of bread and toilet paper. The term invisible hand is well executed here as well, as it seems like there is a magician weaving everything into place, even when things go wrong. It always gets corrected in time, even if we are impatient about it. I really did enjoy this video, and it gave me strong vibes towards the Dark Knight movie scene featuring the joker talking about things going according to plan. Everyone is calm when things go as planned, and we carry out our day to day without much thought at all about how things are done or accomplished. Did this poem remind anyone else about something like this? 

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Video clip:…

WARNING: Contains graphic material and some nudity.

Howard Zinn Textbook:…

Section A: Professor’s Lecture and Videoclip:

Please compare the version of history in your American Yawp or Howard Zinn textbook to this depiction of a slave’s experience being captured and then shipped across the Atlantic in the Hollywood film, Amistad. Are they the same? Or is the Amistad version too harsh? Or is it too clean and nice? What is your reaction?

If you’re like most of my students, you’ll probably be thinking to yourself that it was probably accurate, but that there may have been some exaggerations here and there.

Well, truth be told, what you watched was kind of the “ Disney-version” of the slave trade. Source after source from this time period tells us of the unimaginable horror that was the slave ship, and yet most of us grow up never knowing most of this information. Most of us grow up never knowing how truly horrifying the slave’s experience was. But if we were to go back through the film clip and compare it to reality, I think you might begin to understand what I am talking about.

  • The Capture: Most of us have heard at one time or another that Africans “sold each other” or “sold themselves” into slavery.
  • This is NOT TRUE. The only way this could be true would be to say that all Africans were alike because of the color of their skin. We know this is not reality. What was really happening was enemies were selling enemies into slavery. It would be like me selling an Al Qaeda member into slavery today…or maybe a Canadian (if we happened to be at war with Canada!)
  • The capture though was one of the most frightening parts of this voyage. Imagine being hit over the head and blacking out…and then waking up in a cage on a beach surrounded by people and things you do not know…unable to communicate with the people around you because they don’t speak the same language you do.
  • The Ship: You are then taken on board a large ship…and did anyone catch what the priest was saying to all the Africans as they were being taken on board?
  • Once on board, you are taken below deck and chained into a space the size of a coffin. And it is there, chained down, lying there naked, body against body with the people on either side of you, that you will stay for the next 2-6 months. You are packed in like sardines.
  • You will not be taken up on deck to use the bathroom. You use the bathroom where you lay, as does everyone around you. And people begin to get seasick. People develop dysentery. You end up laying in urine, blood, vomit, and feces for as long as 6 months. And there is deck after deck after deck of slave’s chained up in the cargo holds where no fresh air can penetrate and the fluids from the decks above seep through the cracks in the floor until they reach the lowest deck in the hold where often the smallest slaves were stored… where the children would be forced to lay for months in this accumulation of filth.
  • Every once in a while, women were taken up on deck for “exercise.” You saw a depiction of this in the film, where the women were dancing with the deckhands. This “exercise” was often when the women were taken on deck and raped. Women were not the only ones subject to rape, men and children were raped as well. But, more often than not, women were the ones most often singled out for rape. This was a particularly cruel part of enslavement for women. Once captured and put into slavery, women were not only used for physical labor but were often made into sex slaves as well.
  • You saw in the film slaves being whipped on board the ship. This was often done to maintain control of the ships. To make an “example” out of one or two to keep the rest of the slaves under control. What you did not see was what happens to the flesh when it is whipped with a cow-hide. Once you reach 10 lashes with a whip, the entire back is lacerated. 20 lashes and your back would look like hamburger. 50 lashes and you are down to the bone.
  • One other incident you saw in the film that I will touch upon…the slaves tied together, tied to a bag of rocks, and then thrown overboard. This was often done for many reasons…to lighten a ship that was running too heavy, to get rid of sick slaves, to diminish the number of mouths to feed if food rations were running low, to make an example of a few or any other of a number of reasons.
  • What was not covered by the film though was this: Often, slave traders had their cargo (the slaves) on these ships covered by insurance. But the catch was that insurance companies would only pay out for slaves that were accidentally lost at sea. I’ll let you guess what this practice led to
  • Suffice to say, it is estimated that over 2 million African slaves were “lost at sea.” Historians have suggested that you could literally trace the paths of the slave ships from this era by the litter of bodies lining the ocean floor.

    Section B: Personal Reflection

    So what if I were to tell you that some of those insurance companies that paid out for these supposedly “lost” Africans are the same companies you have car insurance with today? These same companies that made their first dollars off of this rather shady practice are some of the very same insurance companies and banks you do business with today? Would that bother you?

    -When thinking about what you have been taught in previous classes, does it in any way match what these readings and videos on slavery and race have revealed to you?

    Section C: Howard Zinn Textbook

    Please select THREE quotes from the Howard Zinn Readings you found interesting, strange, or of importance. For each quote, please write 1-2 paragraphs reflecting as to why you chose those quotes. Consider what they have to do with history or how they are engaging your learning.

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    Watch the following video to see how this experiment is performed.

    A. Heat Capacity of Calorimeter

    Fill in the following on your report sheet:

    1. Temp. of calorimeter and water before mixing: 22.0 °C

    2. Temp. of warm water: 39.0 °C

    3-7. (determine on your own, using the data below)

    The temperature data for each 15-second interval is given in the table below. Use this to fill out the Temperature versus Time Data on page 145 for Part A. Heat Capacity of Calorimeter

    Time (s) Temp (°C)
    0 22.0
    15 30.3
    30 30.3
    45 30.3
    60 30.3
    75 30.2
    90 30.2
    105 30.2
    120 30.2
    135 30.1
    150 30.1
    165 30.0
    180 30.0

    Use this information to create a graph on page 146. Determine the maximum temperature of the mixture and use that value to calculate the rest of Part A (3-7.). An example calculation is given in the Discussion.

    B. Heat of Neutralization of HCl-NaOH

    Fill in the following on your report sheet:

    1. Temp. of calorimeter and NaOH: 22.2 °C

    Temp. of HCl: 22.2 °C

    2-9. (determine on your own, using the data below)

    The temperature data for each 15-second interval is given in the table below. Use this to fill out the Temperature versus Time Data on page 145 for Part B. Heat of Neutralization of NaOH-HCl

    Time (s) Temp (°C)
    0 22.2
    15 29.2
    30 29.1
    45 29.0
    60 28.9
    75 28.8
    90 28.7
    105 28.7
    120 28.7
    135 28.7
    150 28.7
    165 28.7
    180 28.6

    Use this information to create a graph on page 147. Determine the maximum temperature of the mixture and use that value to calculate the rest of Part B (2-9.). An example calculation is given in the Discussion.

    C. Heat of Neutralization of CH3COOH-NaOH

    Fill in the following on your report sheet:

    1. Temperature of calorimeter and NaOH: 22.1°C

    2-8. (determine on your own, using the data below)

    The temperature data for each 15-second interval is given in the table below. Use this to fill out the Temperature versus Time Data on page 145 for Part C. Heat of Neutralization of NaOH-CH3COOH

    Time (s) Temp (°C)
    0 22.1
    15 28.1
    30 28.0
    45 28.0
    60 27.9
    75 27.9
    90 27.8
    105 27.8
    120 27.8
    135 27.8
    150 27.8
    165 27.7
    180 27.7

    Use this information to create a graph on page 148. Determine the maximum temperature of the mixture and use that value to calculate the rest of Part C (2-8.). An example calculation is given in the Discussion.

    The University of Texas at Da

    American Yawp “Sectional Crisis”:…

    American Yawp “Civil War”:

    Video 1:

    Video 2:

    Assignment #15: Civil War

    The Civil War is sometimes still referred to as “the war of northern aggression” in many places in the deep south, even in the present day. (Yet, it was the confederacy who fired the first shot at Fort Sumter.) This war is unlike any of the other wars we have studied so far this semester. This conflict pitted families against families and in many cases, brothers from the same family fighting on opposite sides of the battlefield. This war forever fractured America as a country and we have not been the same. Never before did we have so much loss of life on such a large scale. One of the reasons for this is the use of very advanced weaponry, combined with traditional styles of fighting. Also, if a soldier was injured on the battlefield, they were more likely to die from disease due to lack of proper medical treatment, lack of anesthetics for pain, and before the invention of antibiotics to fight infection. Once a human limb became infected from gangrene, doctors had no choice but to amputate the limb high enough to stop the spread of the disease. Doctors performed amputations with the patient wide-awake and no pain killer.

    The idea of honoring the dead also became important after the civil war. For many families, the bodies of the soldiers were buried where they fell on the battlefield. Many organizations came together to honor the loved ones, which has now become celebrated yearly events such as memorial day.

    Section A: American Yawp Textbook: “The Sectional Crisis”

    In the American Yawp chapter on The Sectional Crisis, what does the phrase “Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men” refer to? And how does this contribute to conflict between Northern and Southern states? Why was the Compromise of 1850 so controversial? Why do historians view this compromise as an absolute failure? And why are John Brown’s actions make him such an iconic and polarizing future in US history?

    Section B: American Yawp Textbook “The Civil War”

    What are some other reasons as to why the civil war lasted as long as it did? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the North vs. South?

    *Note: Please reference at least 3 specific examples from your American Yawp textbook chapter.

    Section C: Reaction to Videos

    After watching the videos on the Civil War, what are some things that captured your attention? Why should we continue to learn about the Civil War? Why do future generations need to know about it?

    *Note: Please provide 3 to 4 specific examples from the videos.

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