San Diego State University Cr

1) Which theories do you believe better explain all types of crime—biological theories, or strain theories? Looking across the board, are criminals more likely to share biological characteristics (such as mental illness and increased levels of testosterone), or are they more likely to share social traits (being raised in broken homes, living in poverty, lacking education, etc.)? Be sure to cite the sources of your information or statistics.

***Use the GCU Library for sources ( )

The DQ response must be at least 200 words and should have at least one reference in APA format

2) Write a 100-word response to each student in first person as if you were writing it to the students. Talk about how you agree with their ideas and add your own thoughts. Make sure it’s respectful.

Student1) According to the Criminal Behavior Theories, Biological and Biosocial Theories: Addressing Root Causes Classical biological theories of criminality stated that people are “born criminals” who cannot be deterred from committing crimes: Whether due to mental or physical disability, criminals cannot learn to control themselves. The theories I believe that better explains all types of crime is strain theories, researchers who study the relationship of environmental toxins to crime argue that our environment is producing crime by producing neurological damage. Scholars emphasize the fact that minority populations and lower-income groups are the ones most likely to live near these facilities and as a result are more likely than white and higher-income groups to be negatively impacted by these toxins. This, according to the researchers, may help explain why minorities and people from the lower classes seem to catch the attention of the criminal justice system in higher rates than others. being raised in broken homes, living in poverty, lacking education, etc. can definitely can be a huge factors of criminal behavior. Fatherless families with mother’s unable or unwilling to provide necessary affection, fighting and domestic violence, inadequate child supervision and discipline, and mistreatment of children are all common characteristics of broken families that also contribute to criminal activity. 70% OF CRIMINALS ARE FROM BROKEN HOMES, EXPERT SAYS. A Lehigh University psychology professor says that psychological, physiological and socioeconomic factors contribute most to crime in society. The life course literature has long acknowledged the role of family formation in redirecting criminal paths. Men who as juveniles were involved in crime and delinquency are less likely to persist in criminal involvement if and when they become married (Sampson and Laub 1995). The family literature recognizes the impact of repeated family structure change on the children who experience it. Above and beyond having been raised in a single-parent household, or having experienced parental divorce, experiencing family instability appears to undermine educational outcomes, problematizes one’s transition to adulthood, and contributes to risky and delinquent behavior (Fomby and Cherlin 2007, Fomby et al. 2010, Fomby 2013, Fomby and Bosick 2013, Lee and McLanahan 2015, Wu and Martinson 1993). The extent to which these setbacks persist into adulthood is less clear.


Bosick, S., & Fomby, P. (2018). Family Instability in Childhood and Criminal Offending during the Transition into Adulthood. The American behavioral scientist, 62(11), 1483–1504.

Criminal behavior THEORIES: Kent State University. Criminal Behavior Theories | Kent State University. (n.d.).

San Diego State University Cr

Responding to Prose Using Critical Literary Theory (Compare/Contrast)

Create a response to creative nonfiction work and a short story from the last module utilizing a mode of literary theory, focusing on a work of nonfiction. There is no need to include a summary of the work of creative nonfiction, as your instructor has read the stories; instead focus on writing a comparison/contrast (Links to an external site.)essay. The following video provides a great introduction to writing a thesis for your literary analysis:

(Links to an external site.)

Focus your essay on elements of the creative nonfiction work that highlight differences between nonfiction and fiction.

For each main point that you select, support that point with quotes from the narrative, and then share your analysis of how and why the points and evidence/quotes/examples fit together.

Be sure to refer to Module 0 should you have questions about developing an academic paragraph.

Your writing should use one of the traditions of critical literary theory. (Links to an external site.) Use third-person point of view.

For a successful critical thinking assignment, you must do the following:

  • Have a strong thesis statement (Links to an external site.)that you craft after constructing your evidence-based paragraphs (Links to an external site.).
  • Use specific textual support from the text in the body of your paper.
  • Apply a mode of literary analysis to help you make your assertions from a theoretical position.
  • Include quotations with your analysis. This is important so you can work to analyze the author’s words and is an essential part of literary analysis.
  • Proofread for errors in spelling, grammar, and writing mechanics. Vary sentence structure and sentence length to add interest.

Writing Requirements

  • Should be 2-3 pages in length (not counting the title page and references page)
  • Minimum of two scholarly references in addition to the course textbook (The CSU Global Library is a good place to find these references.)
  • Use template paper located in the module folder.
  • Follow correct APA guidelines found in CSU Global Writing Center (Links to an external site.) with regard to the following:
    • Font style and size
    • Margins and spacing
    • References page (Include a reference page citation at the end of the paper for the short story in the antholo

San Diego State University Cr

Find a scholarly article in the GCU library. Copy an excerpt from the article. This is the article I chose so Copy an excerpt from this article  (… ) The excerpt should be the length of a paragraph approximately four to five sentences long). Post the excerpt as your initial discussion forum post with your paraphrase of this excerpt directly underneath. The DQ paraphrase response must be 200 words and have at least one citation and one reference in APA format. 

Student post example 1) The four most agricultural (farming) common calculators, i.e., the Cool Farm Tool, the AgRE-Calc, the Farm Carbon Calculator, and Ex-Act, were selected as the study items. Among them, the Cool Farm Tool is recognized as the most convenient and effective, while the AgRE-Calc and the Farm Carbon Calculator do not entirely distinguish the scientific geographies of animal husbandry (agriculture, farming). Ex-Act is ill-suited for the livestock subdivision because it is based on changes of land use (is the term used to describe the human use of land. It represents the economic and cultural activities (e.g., agricultural, residential, industrial, mining, and recreational uses). According to model experiments, the most well-organized type of farming in conditions of reducing greenhouse gas emissions is full grazing (grasslands suitable for pasturage). Note: “Full grazing” in agriculture, is a method of animal husbandry whereby domestic livestock are allowed to consume wild vegetations outdoor in order to convert grass and other forages into meat, milk, wool, and other animal products, often on land unsuitable for arable farming). With full grazing, manure is left in the fields, and there are no expenses for the production of additional feed. In this case, the emissions are reduced by 2.45 and 0.84 t (??<sub>2</sub>-eq./head-yr) for cows and horses, respectively (“the Cool Farm Tool”); as well as by 0.53 and 0.42 t (??<sub>2</sub>-eq./head-yr) for cows and horses, respectively (“the Farm Carbon Calculator”).

To reduce greenhouse gas emissions from livestock production, it is recommended that the number of domestic animals is gradually decreased (i.e., dogs are the number one domestic animals, pets, etc.). “The Farm Carbon Calculator”, “the AgRE-Calc”, and “Ex-Act” significantly miscalculate the concentration of greenhouse gas assumption by forests (woodland, plantation). Because of the inconsistency in the estimates between the calculators, only should be used generously compared with the type(s) of farmland, forestry and or plantation volume (Sukhoveeva, O.E. (2021).


Sukhoveeva, O. E. (2021). Carbon Calculators as a Tool for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Livestock. Published by Doklady Earth Sciences, 497(1), 266–271. Retrieved from:

Student post example 2) Presents an editorial on crime and age-appropriate punishment. Examination of the United States Supreme Courtcase, Roper v Simmons, which will determine if those committing crimes while under the age of 18 should be eligible for the death penalty; United States which is one of the last countries to condone killing minor criminals; Argument before the court which is based on the Eighth Amendment forbidding “cruel and unusual” punishment; Science which shows that the development of the adolescent brain does not fully mature until the early 20s; How development of the brain should result in a finding of limited mental capacity; Call for the United States Supreme Court to forbid the execution of teencriminals.

This topic has been discussed about in many States. Adolescents who commit the crime, their brains aren’t fully developed, therefore in most cases most aren’t taught discipline. Of course many young teenagers know what’s right from wrong but these kids who are committing the crimes are coming from an unloving home or not coming from any home. The death penalty may be too harsh for these young kids, it’s best if they do their time in jail/prison so that as they get older they soon realize and understand what they did wrong. The eighth amendment to the United States Constitution states “excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cool and unusual punishment inflicted.”


Crime and (age-appropriate) punishment. (2004). Lancet, 364(9444), 1461–1462.…


San Diego State University Cr

1) What are the differences between crime diffusion and crime displacement? Discuss your position on the difficulties faced when measuring displacement/diffusion.

***Use the GCU Library for sources (

***Worrall, J. L. (2015) Crime control in America: What works? (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, ISBN-13: 9780133495485.

The DQ response must be at least 200 words and should have at least one reference in APA format

2) Write a 100-word response to each student in first person as if you were writing it to the students. Talk about how you agree with their ideas and add your own thoughts. Make sure it’s respectful.

Displacement is the spill over or movement of crime (in case of crime control) into a surrounding area and not targeted by intervention in question and diffusion (crime control) is a reduction in crime not only in the area targeted by an intervention, but also in surrounding areas, also referred to as a diffusion of benefit (Worrall 2014). Identifying the differences between displacement and diffusion can be based on variables such as initiative type, crime type targeted and the unit of geography use for intervention. The main difference between both displacement and diffusion is, crime diffusion has to do with decreasing crime in ways that are related to the targeted crime prevention, Displacement on the other hand is the moving of crime from a different regions. Displacement is a term reserved for changes offenders make so they can continue to offend when faced with reduced opportunities, it can be viewed as a negative consequence of crime prevention efforts, it is not as impactful or beneficial to he community than diffusion would be. With displacement, crimes is relocated to places where community impact is less harmful and the crime is transferred away from more vulnerable groups of the population, such as children and the elderly (Guerette 2009). One of the most comprehensive reviews of the extent of displacement among evaluations of situational-focused crime prevention projects, conducted in 2008 by Guerette and Bowers, found that displacement and diffusion are equally likely to occur. The difficulties in measuring crime displacement are that you cannot rely on this to see if this is the root of crime reductions and whether this is truly helpful for the communities based on its relocation.


Guerette, Rob T. and Kate J. Bowers, “Assessing the Extent of Crime Displacement and Diffusion of Benefits: A Review of Situational Crime Prevention Evaluations”, Criminology, 47(4) (2009).

Worrall, J. L. (2014). Crime control in america: What works?, 3/e (3rd ed.). Pearson Education.

San Diego State University Cr

you have three location options to choose from  to conduct your direct observation (you MUST choose one of these  locations):

A coffee shop you’ve never been to in a neighborhood you are unfamiliar with.

An outdoor sporting event

  • A location of your choice at Balboa Park
  • Important: Remember that the sole purpose of your  visit is to observe, not participate!  For example, a sporting event in  which you are playing/participating doesn’t count. You should be taking notes the entire time you are there. Also please practice COVID safety.  Wear a mask, maintain your distance, wash your hands frequently!
  • Guidelines for conducting Direct Observation

Decide on a location. Make sure the location is a public  place. Invasion of privacy is unacceptable. You must choose from the  list of locations you have been given.

Set a time line. You should plan on spending a minimum of  one hour, but not longer than two hours observing.  Make sure you plan  your schedule so that you can do the observation at the most appropriate  time.

Take notes! The more detailed and factual, the better. You  can handwrite your notes while in the field (if this is easier and makes  you less conspicuous) but you should type up your  notes as soon as you have the opportunity (usually right after leaving  the field so the memories are fresh).  Your notes can be written in the  first person (e.g. I arrived at the coffee shop and sat in the far  corner of the store at a table that was facing the center of the room. I  saw a man with a red hat come in and sit down without ordering  anything). Your notes should detail everything you observed related to  your research goals, from the seemingly mundane to the more  interesting/exciting.  It is ok to note what you think is happening  (e.g. “the man sat down at the table and seemed angry at the woman who  was with him”) but you shouldn’t add any of your own judgement into your  field notes (e.g. “he had no right to be angry at her, she was just  waiting for him”).

Be aware of your surroundings and be courteous to your subjects. In  some situations, people may not notice your presence, but if they ask  questions, answer briefly, politely, and honestly. If they seem offended  or annoyed, stop asking questions or leave the location. If you  interview anyone, you must get their informed consent (you won’t be  doing this, just FYI). If anyone makes you feel threatened or uneasy,  leave immediately.

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