New England College Pitcher O

I’m working on a environmental science discussion question and need support to help me understand better.

The Instructions for the Assignments are attatched below in the word document.

you will also need my Lgn info to do the assignments which i will give to you.

these are the students Discussion posts you have to respond to:

Cody

  1. What has happened in Pitcher, Oklahoma, to make it the largest
    Superfund site in the United States? In the state of Oklahoma, it was a
    town that was known for being a producer of zinc and lead, and other
    metals, this led to seeing an increase in production in order to make
    weapons for World War 2. But doing this as they thought was a great
    idea, it caused toxins to people that were living there, while also
    contaminating every part of where residents were getting their water
    supply from.
  2. What are chat piles, and how do they affect Tar Creek? Chat
    Piles is a pile of waste caused by lead and zinc mining, made up of
    rock, limestone, and other waste products. The chat piles affected Tar
    Creek by causing contamination of all water supplies there that are
    harmful to the residents to drink. When the rain would fall it caused
    the chat piles to flow into the water streams around and they didn’t
    have any idea that it was happening.
  3. Why were the children the primary targets for Howard Hu’s study
    of exposure to metal from abandoned zinc and lead mines? They were the
    primary target for Howard Hu’s study due to the fact that children are
    part of the most vulnerable population and since exposing them and their
    teeth as they fall out was a way for them to see how lead and zinc and
    other metals they were being exposed to. Lead exposures have severe
    impacts on everyone and caused children’s IQ to be decreased compared to
    children that haven’t been exposed.
  4. Robin Whyatt is researching links to birth defects from indoor
    pesticide use in New York City. What does she believe to be a common
    misconception about pesticides? Dr. Whyatt research concluded that when
    it comes to pesticides they are not just in agriculture, they present
    themselves in other areas in our life and there are ways t5o minimize
    exposure
  5. What are biomarkers and what biomarker(s) did Whyatt use in her
    pesticide exposure study? Biomarkers are substances that are found in
    certain parts of the body through the blood, fluid that is where toxins
    are stored, to also find out how much of an impact the toxins have
    impacted our body in a negative way. Dr. Whyatt used the biomarkers to
    show how pesticides impacted children in regards to lead and zinc.


Christine

1. What has happened in Pitcher, Oklahoma, to make it the largest Superfund site in the United States?

Pitcher,
Oklahoma, was a metal mining town that was a mass producer of zinc and
lead during World War I and World War II. While mining the lead chat
form, these chat piles took over Picher, OK, and created more toxic
exposure to the residents. Due to the extreme toxic exposure, Picher was
declared a Superfund site by the Environmental Protection Agency.

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2. What are chat piles, and how do they affect Tar Creek?

Chat
piles are the residue left from extracting different metals such as
lead and zinc. This residue is a waste that contains high levels of
hazardous metals. Tar Creek was affected by the chat piles due to
contamination of water supplies that began to harm individuals due to
consumption. The residents were being exposed to lead and being
poisoned—the unknowns of the arsenic and other toxic materials hurting
the population’s health. Tar Creek residents were also unaware of what
was in the chat piles; they had birthday parties out on the piles and
used the chat to fill in roads and driveways, also going off-roading,
leading to toxic exposure.

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3. Why were the children the primary targets for Howard Hu’s study of exposure to metal from abandoned zinc and lead mines?

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Children
were the main focus for Howard Hu’s study due to the longevity of the
lead exposure study. They were using children for this study, allowing
for short and long-term assessments. Along with children being the most
vulnerable for exposure as their bodies aren’t done developing, allowing
the ability to understand the health and behavioral effects with
exposure to lead and other toxic metals. Also, teeth were a significant
factor since lead attaches itself to other proteins like calcium in the
body. The children’s teeth showed significantly increased lead levels
that were remarkable and indicated a need to add to the study.

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4.
Robin Whyatt is researching links to birth defects from indoor
pesticide use in New York City. What does she believe to be a common
misconception about pesticides?

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Robin Whyatt believes that pesticides aren’t just used in agriculture. There are low and high-level exposures in daily life.

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5. What are biomarkers and what biomarker(s) did Whyatt use in her pesticide exposure study?

Biomarkers
are biological molecules found in blood other body fluids or tissues
used as a sign of normal or abnormal process of a condition or disease.
Biomarkers may use it to see how well the body responds to a treatment
for a disease or condition.

Robin
Whyatt used blood samples to identify exposures to pesticides like lead
and zinc on a mother and child to understand the levels at which people
are being exposed in their daily lives, indoor and outdoor.


Donald(Exta Credit Response)

Anti-vaccination and Vaccination

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The
most important ways of preventive medicine is safeguarding individual
against diseases and infections is through vaccines. Their contribution
has been great in minimizing the popular childhood infections, and also
eradicated some ailments which were dangerous in the past like smallpox.
Also, malaria and polio are diseases which have been curbed by the
vaccines. However, it has not ceased the critics by the people against
the vaccines.

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Recently,
the antivaccination sentiments for COVID 19, have shoot by numbers
which argue that introduction of vaccines has brought more harm than
good to the children who often are the target. Jean McCarthy and other
influential people have dealt accordingly with fear and distraction into
guardians and parents thoughts by showing up as experts of autism.

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Moreover,
both social media and television hosts have contributed effectively on
education against administering of vaccines by giving out credence to
their campaign. Consequently, this has dropped the number of vaccines
rate across the globe. Therefore, this has resulted into disease
outbreaks like COVID 19, which was thought to have ceased.

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Moreover,
religious views and other personal reasons are also main contributors
to fall in immunization. This has result to vaccinations dropping hence
threatening to herd immunity which has been fought for many years by the
medical world.

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Therefore,
this leaves the only option for safeguarding people from diseases which
spread faster as coming up with a disease’s resistance which initiates
from herd immunity when many individuals are immune after acquiring
vaccinations.

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The
myths and fear which are against vaccination have been there for ages
dating on 18th century. This started with Reverend Massey who termed
immunization as “diabolical operations”. According to Vasconcellos,
Castiel & Griep (2015), he argued that vaccines were ungodly and
were helping people evade God’s penalty on individuals. Despite the rise
and spread of the vaccines, critics against it has never varnished,
which is understood differently in various parts of the world, where
some are against it due to legal obstacles, skepticism, and theology.

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The
debate on the risks of avoiding vaccination and dangers of acquiring
vaccination has risen has been on talk almost everywhere nowadays. This
has been brought up due to rise in the number of critics which are
suggesting that vaccination might be more harmful than helpful. The
anti-vaccination movement has been contributed to adversely by the
technology, through provision of medical information on the net.

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According to Panchal et al. (2015), this has affected healthcare sector dynamics and patient-physicians interactions.

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Access
of medical information has been possible to everyone which is different
from what was there before where only medical officers kept it in
textbooks and journals. This has therefore resulted in shifting of power
from medical officers as exclusive managers regarding care of the
patients to the patient themselves. Although this could be assisting in a
way, the false evidence and propagation which is misleading that has
been online can have a concern which is negative such as parent not
prioritizing immunization of their children. Moreover, there has been
lots of information which is false talking about immunization and it has
been made easier to access.

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There
is need to equate the dangers of getting ill and dangers of the adverse
effects of vaccination. A number of people opposing vaccination would
reduce if majority of people thought from this perspective. This has
been vivid through some of the ailments which have been controlled
effectively by vaccines that are life-threatening and harmful.

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Moreover,
treatment of some diseases is quite expensive in comparison to disease
prevention through vaccination. Moreover, it should be noted that
majority of people who give wrong information on vaccines are after
their gains. In addition, ones history of vaccinations might contribute
to their views on immunizations which is cemented by independent or by
the media.

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Moreover,
there is a broad non uniform group of people who are in doubt about
vaccines, hence, therefore, with significance of comprehending about
people and groups that do participate in anti-vaccination, a conclusion
by scientist should show that individuals that indicate skepticism about
immunizations holds the same views, consumes same media, and are from
the same background. The cultural and social settings affect both
hesitancy and promotion in which messages are conveyed.

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Divergent
reasons and being opposed to vaccination are the main reasons why
people might not vaccinate. This is because of reasons like lacking
reliable access to immunization services, complacency, lacking
confidence on immunization and other various immunization issues.

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Scientists
can be effective by educating the public on the need of immunization
which help them from being swayed away by the wrong information provide
by social media and internet. According to Fisher (2015), the continuous
use of conspiracy theory thinking on leaders who oppose vaccination
stimulates a lack of trust in scientific and medical communities.

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Due
to this, enhancing more understanding to some of the vaccine spectrum
hesitancy will not be effective since it is not likely to be enough to
simply assure people that scientist has ascertained that vaccines are
effective and safe when these people already show lack of trust to the
experts.

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Hence,
therefore, COVID 19 vaccines should be taken seriously and people
should avoid critics which are posted on social media in order to raise
the number of vaccines and curb life threatening diseases.

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