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CONFIRMATION BIAS

I regretfully apologize for the extended instruction, but I could not avoid it! And please watch the Movie Moments, too!
The absolute biggest obstacle to critical thinking is ‘confirmation bias.’

There are many definitions and most mention the searching for information confirming our beliefs: you must know that that is not intentional – most often not even conscious! We are, by and large, unaware of being biased.

There are many errors we commit during even one single day. ‘Why the errors,’ you may ask, and the short answer is that we (have to) use shortcuts when we form opinions because it would be impossible to research and study each and every decision, judgment, and opinion before we form them — and that would be most of the time unnecessary anyway.

The most serious errors in thinking we tend to commit are usually due to ‘confirmation bias.’ If people would not be biased they could come to an agreement or a compromise after careful deliberations, considering that that would be in their best interest — but it rarely happens: from big government vs. small government to term limits to ‘who is “the” racist’ (as if it could be only one group), affirmative action, the death penalty, abortion, euthanasia, gay marriage, drug laws, republicans versus democrats, liberals vs. conservatives, labor unions, taxes, health care law, gun control, animal rights, ‘vaccination issues,’ ‘a women’s place is in the kitchen’ (or not!), jobless benefits, environmental protection, wars, education, evolution, school prayer, police powers, ‘living wages,’ drinking age, alternative medicine, GMOs (genetically modified crops), speed limit, government data collection… just to name a few.

The basis of conflict often is the subjective nature of our decisions. Disagreements, disputes, screaming matches, physical fights, lawsuits, and war between nations are all there to prove in a very real and painful way that at least one party must be wrong in each conflict/disagreement while strongly believing just the opposite (but in most cases, both are — even if not always equally. How can that happen?

Our book mentions cognitive bias and discusses actual examples of it in various chapters (briefly and well):  Pgs. 6, 102-104, 109, 110, 116, 123, 145, 312-314, and 348-349, but it does not define it clearly.

Confirmation bias is the UNCONSCIOUS tendency to confirm our already existing leanings, propensities, beliefs, and prejudices, or hasty decisions.

We are not only ignorant of our biases but are also often unable to recognize them even when they are pointed out to us! We will rather believe that those who call us biased are biased, mistaken, and/or malicious (please check out ‘fundamental attribution error’).

We often commit the following errors related to confirmation bias:
Selective scrutiny: accepting data/argument without much scrutiny from sources or for proposals we like but with much scrutiny from the ones we do not like (example: buying a new car)

Selective recall: remembering events that support our opinion and not those that contradict it

Pattern seeking: seeing ‘proof’ that ‘something is going on’ because of certain ‘mysterious’ coincidences (see Movie Moment #1).

Affirming the question: when people are asked if they are happy with their social life, almost 70% would answer yes and about 20% no, but if the question is asked the other way, asking them if they are unhappy with their social life, then approx. 70% would respond yes to that question as well (in each instance, people think about reasons they may be happy — or unhappy — and find enough reasons to say, yes, they are.

Avoiding cognitive dissonance: accepting certain ideas because they are consistent with our existing worldview/opinion or rejecting others because they are not — instead of working through the issues themselves (which can be very difficult and/or unsettling)

Demanding ‘yes or no answers:’ (seeing in black and white) being convinced that there must be absolutely good solutions, perfect (or perfectly rotten) people, or believing that someone who ‘opposes’ a ‘bad’ person is necessarily a ‘good’ person (as if we have never heard of gangs warring over turf, killing each other, for example). We often justify our (faulty) judgment by pointing out that the alternative is less than perfect as well.

The above issues are but the tip of the iceberg, so to speak, when it comes to confirmation bias (yes, there is an enormous amount of research about it).

YOUR ASSIGNMENT

Please read the pages in the book on confirmation bias and research it on the internet — and then, please describe an occasion that happened lately when you caught yourselffalling into confirmation bias but after all ended up correcting yourself. Please do not forget: lying, cheating, consciously twisting the facts or torturing reasoning are NOT confirmation bias (they are just not the best behavior); however, strongly and often passionately believing that we are correct when all the evidence contradicting it is in front of our nose is the consequence of confirmation bias. 

Part 1Your initial post: State your answers backed by the evidence you found. This ‘initial post’ has to be at least 300 words and is due by midnight on Wednesday.
Part 2Your response to two students: These comments have to be at least 200 words and are due on two different days  before the end of Sunday

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Madison Goban

weel 3 discussion

The term justice, has a various amount of definitions. The definition that I felt gave the best description of justice in my opinion was ” the quality of being just; righteousness, equitableness, or moral rightness.” I feel this gives the best description because justice is about standing up for someone or something when it is something that we strongly believe that is correct. Regarding crime and punishment in our society I would say the best definition is “the maintenance or administration of what is just according to law” It all goes back to the law when it comes to crime and punishment in our society and it should be solely based off of or law system to give the correct and fair punishments to people who commit crimes. in no way am I saying that this is followed because we have all seen someone get unfair punishment or not enough at all, but if we stuck to the correct justice system and went by the law many people would get the punishment they deserve and others would be let off.

To follow up on that, no I do not think our justice system is just. In some cases it is but in the world we live in today and at this point in time the world honestly seems to be crumbling and no one is in a state of peace. I think something that can be unjust in our society today has a lot to do with people in prison. So many people are behind bars from selling marijuana years ago, and now it is legal. How is that fair to keep someone behind bars with a charge that is most likely legal in their state? I find it mind boggling that there’s so much crime and hate in the world but some of us ae concerned over marijuana. My dad is on the job, law enforcement in New York. You see a lot of crazy stuff here, especially in Manhattan. Drugs are a huge issue but if someone has an issue such as addiction throwing them in prison is only gonna make things worse, many people need rehab. Thats where I find our justice system as unjust, people who go behind bars should be behind there for good reason if they are a threat to not only themselves but society.

Julissa Guevara

week 3 discussion

Hello class! For this week’s discussion post we are to talk about justice. The first thing we are required to do is discuss the definition of justice, the dictionary definition of justice is, “the quality of being just; righteousness, equitableness, or moral rightness.” I agree with this definition because it really is describing justice for what it is. I feel as though social justice, and justice can be included in the same category because realistically, justice is be ‘just.’

The second question asks if our justice system is ‘just’ and unfortunately our system is not just. Trying to maintain status quo in our society defeats the purpose of trying to have a ‘just’ system. Our system in today’s age is very corrupt, I believe our system could really use some fair justice. When I think of justice I definitely do not think of the U.S. justice system, unfortunately that is just not the case. Our system is so unjust that it’s sickening. To spend one night in a hospital will cost you thousands of dollars, even with medical insurance! It’s insane. Not only that, but there are so many innocent people that are sitting behind bars today, and very bad people out on the streets because of the system that we have. To me, that is absolutely not justice.

Prison reform is very much needed, I can agree with people who would want prison reforms in our systems. Why do I feel we need prison reform? Because I feel that an attempt to improve conditions in our prisons is very much needed. Prison reform will help the effectiveness within the penal system. I do agree with alternatives to prison depending on what the individual is facing, or what they are being charged for. It really all depends, but our justice system definitely needs improvements.

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Errors and Biases

Read pages 113-133 of your text discussing cognitive and perceptual errors in thinking. Do research in other sources (at least 3 reliable, respectable, and trustworthy sources) to provide you with a more in-depth look at the stages that are discussed — I warn you that the information you find will have a dizzying array of methods of categorizations, but you do not have to go too deep into this issue (there could be a whole course about such errors).

This assignment is about cognitive errors. All biases, prejudices, disproportionate fears, irrational expectations, etc. are cognitive errors. Children display much more of such errors and are less aware of them than adults, although adults also lack insight into such errors, mostly (that is, their own errors because we can often spot such issues in other people). In any case, most of us, as we grow up, start to discover/catch our cognitive errors and, in many cases, correct them to various degrees. Magical thinking, fallacies, self-fulfilling prophecies, ‘Irrational Beliefs’ (as well as irrational beliefs), religious and political extremism, sexism, ageism, racism (and other biases, including — very importantly — confirmation bias), anger, hatred, dread, panic, extreme suspicion, extreme greed, conspiracy theories, etc. are all cognitive errors. Even simple mistakes in logic (even without biases or emotions) are cognitive errors. Once again: cognitive errors are related to thinking/information processing.  

There are two parts to the project:

Part I. Make a PowerPoint presentation consisting of at least 15 slides on cognitive biases, in general, based on your research.
You will also submit an essay (Part II), explaining how your own judgment and decision-making have reflected in the past, and reflects now, some of your biases you were able to recognize (you do not have to discuss those of your biases that you were unable to recognize :).

Part II. (personal essay — word document) Write an essay that discusses the questions below about your own judgment and cognitive- and decision-making process (using at least 500 words) after you have made your slide presentation.
(1.)  Discuss those of your biases of which you became aware through your intellectual development.
(2.)  Do you make judgments and decisions differently now than you did at an earlier point in your life? Explain and provide an example of how a bias (or biases) influenced a judgment/decision (or decisions) you made at an earlier point in your life.
(3.)  Discuss a recent judgment/decision that you made and explain how this judgment/decision is different from what you would have made at an earlier time based on the bias(es) you could not recognize at an earlier time. 

Cognitive Errors — Critical Thinking Final Project:

Week3: Slide PresentationPoint ValueNumber of slides and Quality content in slides and examples of cognitive errors and biases50 pointsWritten essay: How your current decision-making and judgment shows the recognition of your earlier errors/biases

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‘Justice’

The concept of justice, in general, is complex and somewhat nebulous (and thus specified differently by the different aspects of it), and, of course, deeply philosophical, considering that every society has its own ideas of what is and isn’t just in the different spheres of life where the concept must be applicable, so after finding and accepting a definition, we should ask ourselves, what is justice to us, personally, when it is related to crime and punishment in the 21st century America, and how much of our own conviction (no pun intended) regarding those issues agrees with the way our society manages them, and also, if you consider the idea of social justice an integral part of the issue (dilemma?) of crime and punishment or separate from it? For starters, please see the dictionary definition of justice below.

Please understand that such issues can lead to the conflict of opinion with other students who may see things very differently, so please refrain from name-calling, empty propaganda (opinions do not matter in critical thinking — facts are), and assigning blame to certain groups of people or to one political party or another (there is plenty of blame to go around in every direction, in any case) and again, try to focus on facts and logic in support of your argument.

Here is your discussion challenge:


Before you start: Please watch the Movie Moments videos — they provide
information you should know before you make your argument one way or another.
1. Try to define ‘justice’ regarding ‘crime and punishment’ in our society (see the dictionary definition below). What is justice, in essence, within that framework? Punishment? Retribution? Deterrence? Correction? Protecting society from harm? Maintaining the status quo (a tradition and social order to be upheld and continued unchanged) and, if so, can it be separated from another concept, ‘social justice?’

2. Is our justice system ‘just,’ according to the definition you find relevant, and also, is it so according to its moral definition in our society? What can be the reason for ‘injustice’ (if there is any) within our justice system?

3. There are all kinds of talks about the need for prison reform — why? Is there anything wrong with it? And if so, how could the system be improved (in case it should be improved)?

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  • Please read the Psychology Discussion Requirements fully, and then Read pages 174 – 184 in your text. Opioid use, addiction, and overdoses have increased to alarming rates in the United States in recent years. Millions of Americans are affected by the opioid epidemic every day.Read Volkow et al.’s (2014) article and Brown’s (2018) articles (PDF’s below) before discussing the following questions.
  • ReferencesBrown, A. R. (2018). A systematic review of psychosocial interventions in treatment of opioid addiction, Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/1533256X.2018.1485574
    Coon, D., Mitterer, J.O., & Martini, T. (2022). Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior (16th ed.). Cengage Learning.
    Volkow, N. D., Frieden, T. R., Hyde, P. S., & Cha, S. S. (2014). Medication-assisted therapies — tackling the opioid-overdose epidemic. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(22), 2063-2066. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1402780For this week’s main post, answer all of the following questions. Be sure to include factual, properly cited information in your post.
    • What are some ways that opioid addiction is affecting the United States?
    • What are some forms of treatment available to those suffering from opioid addiction?
    • If you had a friend or family member suffering from opioid addiction, what sort of help would you recommend they seek?

    PSY1012 Week 2 Discussion Brown-2018.pdf PSY1012 Week 2 Discussion Brown-2018.pdf – Alternative Formats
    PSY1012 Week Two Discussion Volkow-2014.pdf PSY1012 Week Two Discussion Volkow-2014.pdf – Alternative Formats

    To post to the discussion, click on the title: Week 2 Psy Discussion Forum and then Create Thread.


  • Week 2 Dream Assignment

    JournalClick for more options

    Week 2 Assignment- DreamsYour AssignmentRead the section titled “REM Sleep and Dreaming” on page 168 and “Dream Theories” on pages 169-170 in your textbook. These sections discuss theories on dreams, the history of dream interpretation, the most common characteristics of dreams, and the meaning of dreams.
    Check out these websites:
    For this week’s Assignment, answer the following questions in APA Format and in a word document. Be sure to include factual, properly cited information in your Assignment.Write about a dream that really made an impact on you. It can be a recurring dream, a scary dream, a happy dream, or an especially vivid dream. What do the above websites say about the interpretation of your dream? Do you feel these interpretations are accurate? Why or why not?What do you think is the meaning behind this dream? Directions:
    1. Write at least 300 words in a word document about this topic. Post your word count in your assignment.
    2. Make sure to cite sources in your assignment using APA format. The source for question 2 must be the websites listed, for question 1 and 3, it may be your textbook or any other source you research. The entire assignment, from title page to reference page must be in APA 7th edition format.
    3. Submit your assignment using the Week 2 Dream Assignment link above.

    Example Week 2 Assignment Example Week 2 Assignment – Alternative Formats

    Tips for your Assignment:

    • Always use the 7th edition of APA for your references and in-text citations (Wikipedia is not a reliable source and cannot be used in this class).
    • The assignment must be written in 7th edition APA format in a Microsoft Word document with header page numbers at top right side of each page, Title page, no more than 12 point font, double spaced and indented paragraphs, 7th edition APA citations in each paragraph to support what is shared throughout, and a complete 7th edition APA reference page, word count posted (there is an example below).
    • Please be sure to back up your answers with facts from the source, and put together complete and well thought out responses.
    • Also make sure that you support and reinforce your answers and replies with factual information from the source.
    • Make sure to do a spelling and grammar check before submitting.
    • Double check that you meet the word requirement (title page information, section headings, and references do not get included in a word count).

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you should reply to classmates in any two of the other three threads – this is required, and responses posted to the same discussion you submitted your main post to will not be counted for peer credit. Responses to your classmates are due by Sunday

Hey Rochae,

I really enjoyed reading your discussion post. I too got a 45 on the listening inventory quiz. I was also very shocked, because I have been working on my listening skills, as they used to be even worse. I used to cut people off while they were talking, or not even listen to them at all. However, I know longer cut people off and I show people I am listening by showing eye contact and giving them all my focus. Listening is important because it is critical for effective communication (de Janasz et al., 2019). The act of listening demands attention, concentration, and effort. This can be done through passive, attentive, and active or empathetic listening. Passive listening is taking in information with no attempt to process that information. Attentative listening occurs when you are interested in the speakers message, but fil in the gaps with your own assumptions based on what you want to hear. Empathetic listening is the most powerful in which it is a vibrant two-way process that involves high levels of attentativeness (de Janasz et al., 2019). Like you, I realize that I am a more attentive listerner and when people are talking to me I tend to add things in that I want to hear, rather than listening to what else they were going to say. Therefore, I understand why I got a 45 on the listening inventory quiz and definetly have work to do in order to become a more empathetic listerner. I can do this by giving the speaker my full attention, concentration, and effort rather than just hearing them and not proccessing anything they say.

Rebecca Per

My score for the Listening Inventory Quiz was a 43. So, in other words I am an okay listener, but there is room for improvement. I agree with this score since I know that I can be an impatient listener at times. Since listening is the process of hearing someone speak and processing what you are hearing, to then demonstrate what you understood from the person’s conversation (De Janasz, Dowd & Schneider, 2018). Empathic listening was suggested to help improve my listening skills and take them to the next level. So basically, I need to learn to recognize a person’s emotions and perspectives when listening to them as well as asking open questions to help the person describe what they are trying to say to the clearest level of understanding. Potential strategies that can be used for this to help improve my future listening skills could be to try to out myself in that person’s shoes, aka looking from their point pf view, try not to fear silence when I am listening to someone speak but instead welcome the silence as a way to allow the person time to gather their thoughts and words to finish their point with a strong ending, and just pay attention to their body langauage. I know that I could always use improvement in listening since I am not one to like to hear when people are talking to talk, or talking to complain about everything, which has hendered my listening skills throughout the past years. I am a person that tends not to speak out to everyone in order for someone to listen to me and in a sense, have basically shut down my listening skills to the maximum effort that they could be at.

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Title: Understanding Diversity

Purpose: To reflect on our own understanding of diversity.

Resources: This essay is a reflection exercise.

Activity Instructions:

After reading chapter 5 of the textbook, complete this activity. You have learned about the skill of understanding and managing diversity – what it is, why it is important, and how to improve your skill in these areas.

Answer the questions below in comprehensive, complete sentences. Do not provide brief answers. Instead, compose at least 4-5 full sentences (i.e., a complete paragraph) that answer each of the posed thought-provoking discussions.

Please remember that your task is to not only write your own assessment, but to show that you are able to draw connections between your readings and your reflection. Use concepts and theories from the appropriate chapters, explain your understanding of their application, and show how they help you understand yourself. Remember to cite properly in-text (Author, YEAR) and at the end of your reflection with a fully formatted APA reference.

I have provided you with a template where these questions are already entered. All you need to do is enter your own information by typing it right into the template.

After you have completed and proofread your assignment, I encourage you to send it to the Writing Lab for extra checking (see announcement). Using the OWL will help you earn a higher grade on all written assignments submitted in the class.


Resources

I have provided you with a template where these questions are already entered. All you need to do is enter your own information by typing it right into the template.

Integrating and Citing Sources in Essays

Examples of Integrating and Citing Sources in Your Essay
Examples of an in-text citation:
According to Social Information Processing Theory, senders of the message utilize a variety of options, such as timing, style, and verbiage content to create as favorable interaction environment as possible (Walther, 1992).
Social presence spans a variety of contexts, including organizational, instructional, and relational communication encounters (Maguire, Heinemann-Lafave, & Connaughton, in press).
Examples of properly formatted references for these in-text citations (provided at the end of the document):
References:
Maguire, K., Heinemann-LaFave, D.S., & Connaughton, S.L. (2018). Social presence and online relating: A cross-contextual view. In L. Webb & K. Wright (Eds.), Computer-Mediated Communication in Personal Relationships, 2nd ed. Cresskill, NJ: Peter Lang.
Walther, J. B. (1992). Interpersonal effects in computer-mediated interaction: A relational perspective. Communication Research, 19, 52-90. doi:10.1177/009365092019001003

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QUESTION 1

Based on shifts in program delivery and bigger presence of inclusive fitness, a movement has occurred from a more rehabilitative setting to this type of setting?

A) Workplace

B) Sports Medicine/Athletic-base

C)Community-based

D) Personal training

n 1950, males and females, respectively, had life expectancies of 66 and 71.7 years.Approximately 60 years later, the expected life expectancy is 76 for males and 80.9 for females.Although this change is positive, which of the following is a negative impact on society that offsets the increase in years of life expectancy?

a.

Reliance on family and friends

b.

Reduction in functional independence/inactivity

c.

Reliance on automobiles/transportation

d.

Reduction in quantity of life

QUESTION 3

  • To better assist special population clients, appropriate assessment is critical to develop safe and effective exercise programs with very particular conditions.Therefore, it is necessary to be specific and individualized for each client.Which of the following is not an appropriate rationale to perform assessments on these potential higher-risk individuals?

a.

The needs and limitations that are set by the client

b.

Ability to set realistic goals for the condition at hand

c.

Establishing a baseline and current levels of fitness

d.

Developing a scope of practice in case of injury or exacerbation of conditions

5 points

QUESTION 4

  • Training recommendations are critical for those who are previously sedentary.If lower back pain is present, which training recommendation is inappropriate and could lead to increased injuries or an exacerbated condition?

a.

Aerobic training intensities at about 55-75% of HRmax

b.

A progression from one day per week to three or more days a week of aerobic training

c.

80-90% 1RM loading that incorporates all major muscle groups

d.

Frequency of one to two days per week

5 points

QUESTION 5

  • Osteoarthritis can lead to debilitating effects on all types of individuals.Exercise benefits have direct impact on relieving joint pain, but also can help with weight management to help diminish loading on specific joints.Besides these factors, exercise will also enhance which of the following factors?

a.

Decreased neuromuscular coordination

b.

Increase functional capacity

c.

Decrease functional capacity

d.

Muscular mobility

5 points

QUESTION 6

  • Negative energy balance is considered necessary to help those with obesity lose weight.Of the many ways to create negative energy balance within the system, which will provide a negative impact on the body where weight loss will not be optimized?

a.

Maintaining weight loss is more challenging because losing weight causes decreased energy requirements

b.

Smaller energy flux

c.

Environmental changes

d.

Minimal differences between negative energy balance with low-fat, high-protein, or low-carbohydrate diets

5 points

QUESTION 7

  • Type 2 Diabetes can be affected greatly by aerobic exercise due to enhanced glucose delivery and improved insulin sensitivity based on better transport and reception of glucose.Although positive in nature, an acute response to exercise can be detrimental due to which of the following concerns to the Type 2 Diabetic?

a.

Hypoglycemia

b.

Silent ischemia

c.

Peripheral neuropathy

d.

Low blood pressure

5 points

QUESTION 8

  • Exercise can provide a large glycemic response in Type 1 Diabetics.Which of the following timeframes surrounding exercise will not be a concern for hypoglycemia?

a.

Hours later during sleep

b.

Intra-training

c.

Pre-training

d.

Post-training

5 points

QUESTION 9

  • Asthma or exercise-induced bronchorestriction (EIB) patients/clients/athletes need to pay attention to their warm-ups before exercise.Based on your understanding of this condition, a recommended warm-up time should be which range?

a.

15-20 minutes

b.

10-15 minutes

c.

5-10 minutes

d.

20-30 minutes

5 points

QUESTION 10

  • Therapeutic treatments for chronic restrictive pulmonary disease (CRPD) are important due to the individual nature of each patient.Based on factors for nonpharmacological treatments, what percentage of blood oxygen levels needs to be maintained from pulse oximeter readings?

a.

90%

b.

99%

c.

97%

d.

95%

5 points

QUESTION 11

  • Exercise can positively impact those with hypertension greatly in a very short period of time.Meta-analysis data suggests that over an eight-week time period, those with hypertension can have this amount of reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure with resistance training?

a.

5-7 mmHg

b.

10-12 mmHg

c.

1-2 mmHg

d.

3-4 mmHg

5 points

QUESTION 12

  • Intensity level for Aerobic and Resistance training guidelines provide the same upper limit intensity for those with prior myocardial infarctions.During both modalities of training, what percentage of both VO2 and resistance/weight should these high risk patients/clients not exceed?

a.

60%

b.

40%

c.

20%

d.

80%

5 points

QUESTION 13

  • HIV/AIDS patients can show improvements in their conditions based on incorporating exercise into their daily lives.Unfortunately, as the disease progresses, there are some conditions that will continue to deteriorate.Which of the following would most likely reduce exercise capacity?

a.

Improved muscle function

b.

Diminished exercise fatigue

c.

Muscle weakness increases

d.

Diminished dehydration and opportunistic infection

5 points

QUESTION 14

  • A progressive neurological disorder is a condition that involves a continuing and progressive deterioration of functioning.Of those conditions listed below that need more research regarding how exercise improves functioning, which is NOT a progressive condition?

a.

Multiple sclerosis

b.

Cerebral palsy

c.

Parkinson’s disease

d.

Muscular dystrophy

5 points

QUESTION 15

  • Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) have a tendency to limit sufferers in their aerobic and muscular endurance capacities, thereby affecting their ADLs.Based on these issues for training, what may be the best recommendation listed below for someone with a TBI if they are just getting back into exercising?

a.

15-20 minutes, 1 to 2 times per week, 55-65% intensity

b.

15-20 minutes, 2 to 3 times per week, 40-50% intensity

c.

10-15 minutes, 1 to 2 times per week, 40-50% intensity

d.

10-15 minutes, 2 to 3 times per week , 55-65% intensity

5 points

QUESTION 16

  • Those with cognitive disorders are subject to having concerns about “learning” new movements based on cognitive and anatomical purposes.Which of the following modalities would be the best choice for those with cognitive disorders to help them learn the movements?

a.

Aerobic conditioning

b.

Machine-based resistance training

c.

Free weights

d.

Low-intensity intensity training

5 points

QUESTION 17

  • Cancer patients develop side-effects from the treatments and medication they receive, plus the general side-effects that are present based on the disease.Research has shown that incorporating cardiorespiratory training can help minimize these side-effects.What level of intensity should cancer patients be working at when they begin an exercise intervention to help these symptoms?

a.

25%

b.

35%

c.

45%

d.

None of the above, begin at self-selected intensity

5 points

QUESTION 18

  • Children and adults can be vastly different, yet similar in many physiological measures.Based on your previous understanding of children versus adults and the material from this class, select the best terms that fit the following statement:
    “Children will typically have __________ maximal heart rates, __________ stroke volumes, and __________ exercise recovery.”

a.

Lower, greater, greater

b.

Lower, lower, greater

c.

Greater, lower, greater

d.

Greater, greater, greater

5 points

QUESTION 19

  • It has been understood throughout many previous classes that older adults/elderly have an increase in atrophy while simultaneously increasing body fat composition.Based on this understanding, which muscle fiber type is most likely affected at a higher percentage?

a.

Choices a and b have similar rates of loss

b.

Type I

c.

Type II

d.

Choices a and b have similar increases in size as they age

5 points

QUESTION 20

  • After the first trimester of pregnancy, it is not recommended to complete exercises or flexibility routines while lying in a prone position.As a fitness/exercise/health professional, you need to advise the woman that this is due to the higher amount of pressure that is place on the abdomen causing a change in this blood vessel diminishing blood flow?

a.

Aorta

b.

Carotid artery

c.

Pulmonary vein

d.

Vena cava

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Teen Suicide and Bullying

Please read pages 109 – 110 for Kohlberg and Gilligan, then pages 95 – 100 for Erikson’s psychosocial dilemmas at different stages of life. Read pages 457 – 458 for readings on Suicide.

Coon et al. (2022) discuss the difficulties teenagers face in establishing their own identity, many problems stem from the unclear standards about the role adolescents should play within society. Coon et al. (2022) also explains that teenagers experience ambiguity, or unclear interpretations when defining their roles. This adds to their confusion of a clear and solid sense of self.

More and more often we are seeing cases presented in the media about teens who have taken their own lives as a result of bullying and cyberbullying (Wang, 2016). Coon et al. (2022) have argued that adolescence is a tumultuous time. However, Karen Horney’s theory explains that basic anxiety occurs because we live in a hostile world. An example in Wang (2016), report of a suicide by a 13-year-old girl in response to racial and social prejudice against perceived sexual orientation.

References

Coon, D., Mitterer, J.O., & Martini, T. (2022). Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior (16th ed.). Cengage Learning.

Wang, Y. (2016). After years of alleged bullying, an Ohio teen killed herself. Is her school district responsible? The Washington Post.

For this week’s main post, answer all of the following questions. Be sure to include factual, properly cited information in your post.

  • How much does emotional turbulence versus social hostility count as an explanation for teen suicide? Or is it a combination of the two?
  • Drawing upon Kohlberg’s theory of stages of moral development, Gilligan’s theory of caring, and Erikson’s psychosocial stages theory, discuss reasons why an adolescent might turn to suicide.
  • Using one of these theories, suggest how to help a teen who has been a victim of bullying.

Keiser Career College Greenac

Title: The Social Mirror

Purpose: To identify how others perceptions and views have affected and shaped our personalities, identities and self-image.

Resources: This essay is a reflection exercise. I have provided you with a template where these questions are already entered. All you need to do is enter your own information by typing it right into the template. Please use the template and answer all questions. Assignments that do not answer all required questions will be rendered incomplete and earn “0” credit.

Activity Instructions:

Complete this assignment based on your first Unit readings for the week. To recognize the potential inaccuracy or incompetence of the “social mirror,” or others’ opinions of you as a person, take a moment to reflect on how the social mirror has affected you. Reflect back on all aspects of your life: personal (dealing with family and friends, roommates, neighbors, significant others), academic (teachers, coaches, classmates), and professional (bosses, co-workers, subordinates, mentors) to examine what influence others have had on your self-image and other areas of importance to you (community, religion, sports, etc.).

Answer the questions in the template in comprehensive, complete sentences. Do not provide brief answers. Instead, compose at least 4-5 full sentences (I.e., a full paragraph) that answer each of the posed questions.

Please remember that your task is to not only write your own assessment, but to show that you are able to draw connections between your readings and your reflection. Use concepts and theories from the appropriate chapters, explain your understanding of their application, and show how they help you understand yourself. Do not forget to tie each answer to personal and professional communciation effectiveness. Finally, remember to cite properly in-text (Author, YEAR) and at the end of your reflection with a fully formatted APA reference.

Integrating and Citing Sources in Essays

Examples of Integrating and Citing Sources in Your Essay
Examples of an in-text citation:
According to Social Information Processing Theory, senders of the message utilize a variety of options, such as timing, style, and verbiage content to create as favorable interaction environment as possible (Walther, 1992).
Social presence spans a variety of contexts, including organizational, instructional, and relational communication encounters (Maguire, Heinemann-Lafave, & Connaughton, in press).
Examples of properly formatted references for these in-text citations (provided at the end of the document):
References:
Maguire, K., Heinemann-LaFave, D.S., & Connaughton, S.L. (2018). Social presence and online relating: A cross-contextual view. In L. Webb & K. Wright (Eds.), Computer-Mediated Communication in Personal Relationships, 2nd ed. Cresskill, NJ: Peter Lang.
Walther, J. B. (1992). Interpersonal effects in computer-mediated interaction: A relational perspective. Communication Research, 19, 52-90. doi:10.1177/009365092019001003

Watch VideoReferencing Sources in APA Style: A Basic Introduction

Duration: (3:38)
User: munlibraries – Added: 9/10/13

Keiser Career College Greenac

Wildalys

After doing the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRSS), I learned that I fall under the category of “Major life crisis”. I am very aware that I am stressed but I did not recognize how much stress I have been building up with in the last year. I learned that I have an 80 percent chance of illness and most definitely should find ways to cope with stress. My stress comes from all over the place. They range from financial issues to multiple recent deaths in the family, College work, and even a marriage separation. The hassle of my job and constantly having to fix others’ mistakes and having two ladies on maternity leave just add to my already full plate. I try different ways to cope with stress. These include meditating, working out, and worshiping, just to name my top 3. As we read in the book, “if your stress level is too high, an adjustment in your activity or lifestyle may be needed.” (Coon, et al, 2022) Meditating and working out have helped me a lot with stress. When I feel at my highest, I tend to go harder in the gym and leave the stress there. Also, meditation helps me really calm down and release all the negative and fill up with positive energy. It really depends on my stress level whether I want to burn it out at the gym or breathe it out with meditation and yoga. I am a strong believer in God and when I feel like throwing in the towel, I love worshiping with my children and singing “god songs” as they would say. Clearing my head of stress helps me academically achieve much more. I am able to read and absorb and be more “on top” of myself and my classwork. Always keep in mind stress is temporary. 

WC:306

Reference 

Coon, D., Mitterer, J.O., & Martini, T. (2022). Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior (16th ed.). Cengage Learning 

Valarie

According to the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, I scored at 388, which tells me I am highly stressed and have a higher chance of developing a Stress Related Disorder. I can see this, and I acknowledge that. These past years have been incredibly challenging. While writing this, I have looked at myself in the mirror and I have a lot of mental work to do on myself.

Some of the things that came up were, Minor violations of the law, change in sleeping habits, change in eating habits, change in number of arguments with spouse, and gaining a new family member. Some of those things are not so bad, and others are. Like I mentioned above, I acknowledge them and plan to seek professional help. Some of the things I realize I can control on my own, such as violations with the law, I got a couple of speeding tickets, and changes in eating habits.  

I plan to take care of myself much better the I have before. I’m that person who everyone runs to for help, and at the end of the day if I need help, who can I run too? This is something I am constantly working on. I feel as if I am blessed so let me bless others, But I have learned the difference in blessing others and being taken of granted. I have started to read more. Take at least 30 minutes to an hour to read and relax myself, with a glass of wine to help. 

My life is unconventional, I am a stepmom and a Nana. My life has changed substantially in the past years. In order for me to be great for them, I must take care of me. Being their stepmother and Nana has gave me a whole new purpose in life and I want to be able to give then all of me without any interruptions. By looking for professional help, this will also make me a better student. 

WC 350 

References 

  • Coon, D., Mitterer, J.O., & Martini, T. (2022). Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior (16th ed.). Cengage Learning. 
  • brandeis.edu/roybal/docs/Social%20Readjustment%20rating%20scale 

Keiser Career College Greenac

Subrina Green 

My confirmation bias was that I believed I saw a UFO while sitting outside of my house. I am a big conspiracy theorist and I do believe that there is alien life out there. One night I was sitting on my porch and I saw something in the sky shining so bright and it was blinking. I sat outside for about 2 hours and it was still there. I looked up I didn’t see any stars that looked like what I was looking at. I was convinced it’s a UFO. I took a zoomed-in picture on my phone and it looked very circular in the picture. Now I’m definitely convinced, so that night I went to bed and as soon as I fell asleep I woke up in chills and I had to turn my heat on. I was convinced the aliens were trying to freeze me. When I woke up the next day I told my boyfriend and my sister and they both laughed at me so I sent them the picture. My boyfriend said he didn’t believe it was an alien ship and he thinks it’s a satellite and my sister said it looked odd and it didn’t look like a star. A week or two later I saw the same thing in the sky but this time it was two so now I’m convinced it was a star and I was being paranoid based on my confirmation bias. Now I know from my critical thinking, I was using biased interpretation in which I interpreted the evidence-based on existing beliefs by typically evaluating confirming evidence differently than evidence that challenged my preconceptions. I took a photo of a star and in the picture, the star came out circular so I cannot confirm if it was a UFO that I saw.

WC 305

Noor, I. (2020, June 10). Confirmation Bias. Confirmation Bias | Simply Psychology.

Kristen Solari 

The term confirmation bias first appeared in academic literature in the 1977 paper by Clifford Mynatt, Michael Doherty, and Ryan Tweney entitled ‘Confirmation bias in a simulated research environment: An experimental study of scientific interference’. The study was created in an attempt to demonstrate why scientists should attempt to falsify their theories – rather than confirm them. The participants were tasked with formulating a hypothesis and then presented with two environments: one in which they could “make observations which would probably confirm these hypotheses or test alternative hypotheses.” (Mynatt, 1977) Strong evidence for a confirmation bias, involving failure to choose environments allowing for alternative theories to be tested, was found.

I quite enjoy the feelings of finality and completion; because of this, I have learned, recently, that I may have been partaking in confirmation bias in an attempt to avoid cognitive dissonance.

While serving on a panel of judges, I found myself expecting a good presentation from the departments that have historically scored highly in pageantry. I did the inverse with the lower performing departments. Because of this, ordinary presentations seemed impressive from departments such as Managua, Estelí, and Chinandega and presentations that were better than the aforementioned from Zelaya Norte and Madríz seemed lacking. I became aware of my unfair decision making after sharing the media with my mother who was not aware of the each department’s history. After conferring with the other members of the panel, we came to the conclusion that in the coming years the delegate would receive an impartial, disinterested treatment if they donned numbers instead of sashes bearing the names of their departments.

Paraskevi Noulas, PsyD, a clinical assistant professor at NYU Langone Health states that “cognitive dissonance is ever-present in both the smallest, simplest examples to the deepest layers of humanity that impact the way [that] we interact with each other and view ourselves and the world.”

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