From Part I of the exercises in Section 1.3 of the textbook do only: 1 through 14, 19, 23 through 26, 28, and 29. (so 21 problems total here) Special Directions: All that you need to do here is to state whether the argument is deductive or inductive, and then what specific form of deductive or inductive argument it is, if it has an identifiable form (one or two may not). For example, your answer may look like this: Deductive; Hypothetical Syllogism OR Inductive; Causal.
1, Because triangle A is congruent with triangle B, and triangle A is isosceles, it follows that triangle B is isosceles.
2. The plaque on the leaning tower of Pisa says that Galileo performed experi-ments there with falling objects. It must be the case that Galileo did indeed perform those experiments there.
3. The rainfall in Seattle has been more than 15 inches every year for the past thirty years. Therefore, the rainfall next year will probably be more than 15 inches
?4. No e-mail messages are eloquent creations. Some love letters are eloquent cre- ations.Therefore, some love letters are not e-mail messages.
5. Amoco, Exxon, and Texaco are all listed on the New York Stock Exchange. It must be the case that all major American oil companies are listed on the New York Stock Exchange.
6. The longer a pendulum is, the longer it takes to swing. Therefore, when the pendulum of a clock is lengthened, the clock slows down.
?7. Paying off terrorists in exchange for hostages is not a wise policy, since such action will only lead them to take more hostages in the future.
8. The Matterhorn is higher than Mount Whitney, and Mount Whitney is higher than Mount Rainier. The obvious conclusion is that the Matterhorn is higher than Mount Rainier.
9. Although both front and rear doors were found open after the burglary, there were pry marks around the lock on the rear door and deposits of mud near the threshold. It must be the case that the thief entered through the rear door and left through the front.
?10. The Wall Street Journal has an article on the new banking regulations. The Financial Times, like the Wall Street Journal, is a highly respected business publication. Therefore, the Financial Times probably also has an article on the new banking regulations.
11. Cholesterol is endogenous with humans. Therefore, it is manufactured inside the human body.
12. Either classical culture originated in Greece, or it originated in Egypt. Classi-cal culture did not originate in Egypt. Therefore, classical culture originated in Greece.
?13. World-renowned physicist Stephen Hawking says that the condition of the universe at the instant of the big bang was more highly ordered than it is today. In view of Hawking’s stature in the scientific community, we should conclude that this description of the universe is correct.
14. If Alexander the Great died from typhoid fever, then he became infected in India. Alexander the Great did die from typhoid fever. Therefore, he became infected in India
?19. When the Romans occupied England, coal was burned. Since coal produces quite a bit of soot and sulfur dioxide, there must have been days almost 2,000 years ago when the air in the larger towns was badly polluted. Stanley Gedzelman, The Science and Wonders of the Atmosphere
23. Given present growth rates in underdeveloped countries, the limited practice of birth control, and the difficulty of slowing the current growth momentum, it can be said with virtual certainty that none of the people now reading this book will ever live in a world where the population is not growing.(J. John Palen, Social Problems)
24. The interpretation of the laws is the proper and peculiar province of the courts. A constitution is, in fact, and must be regarded by the judges, as a fun-damental law. It therefore belongs to them to ascertain its meaning, as well as the meaning of any particular act proceeding from the legislative body.(Alexander Hamilton, Federalist Papers, No. 78)
?25. The Simpson incident had shown me that a dog was kept in the stables, and yet, though someone had been in and had fetched out a horse, he had not barked enough to arouse the two lads in the loft. Obviously the midnight visi- tor was someone whom the dog knew well.(A. Conan Doyle, Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes)
26. Eternity is simultaneously whole. But time has a before and an after. Therefore time and eternity are not the same thing
?28. Animals that live on plant foods must eat large quantities of vegetation, and this consumes much of their time. Meat eaters, by contrast, have no need to eat so much or so often. Consequently, meat-eating hominines [early humans] may have had more leisure time available to explore and manipulate their environment; like lions and leopards, they would have time to spend lying around and playing.( William A. Haviland, Cultural Anthropology, 8th ed.)
29. We tell people not to speed, but equip cars with air bags in case they do. So what’s wrong with telling kids not to have sex, but making Plan B available in case they do?