Columbia Southern University

Instructions

Effective leaders use several communication methods and an understanding of team dynamics to create effective teams. In today’s globalized workplace, team members may be culturally diverse, working together virtually via remote locations, and possibly from multiple generations. Along with creating an effective team, leaders must assist the team in having productive meetings in order to achieve the desired goals.
 

You are a senior supervisor for the marketing department of a large company in the beginning stages of globalization (you may choose the industry’s focus). Your CEO has approached you with an offer of the position of marketing director and the opportunity to create your own global team. Along with two members from your Los Angeles base, you will need to also hire four additional team members, located in Japan and London, to work with overseas clients. This offer is contingent on approval by the board of directors. 

For this assignment, you will develop a PowerPoint presentation to be used in the meeting you and your CEO will have with the board of directors to gain approval to promote you to the position and create this new team.

Your presentation should:

  • Assess the nature of the collaboration process to show the benefit of creating this team. 
  • Explain the characteristics you will seek and foster for team dynamics to support the organization’s expanding mission and objectives. 
  • Address how you will lead and develop a team that functions and collaborates both in person and virtually. Offer specific strategies that will enhance team meetings for your diverse and geographically distant team. 
  • Summarize how your leadership skills will help you implement strategies to enhance team cohesiveness and productivity. Offer specific examples of strategies you will employ.
  • Include any other information you feel is relevant to persuade the board that you are the right person to lead this team.
  • Include speaker notes on each slide. This is a great way to expand on slide content or add additional talking points you want the board to consider, while keeping the presentation visually appealing and concise.

Columbia Southern University

For this assignment, you will utilize  information and research from the assignments in previous units to  create a concept paper on the community health of the community you have  chosen. You will incorporate your opinions and perspectives, supported  by research and data you discovered in your previous assignments. Your  concept paper should contain best practices, philosophies, and other  related issues that you believe should be acted on in the near future  for the betterment of the community. It should also illustrate the  unique roles and requirements of a community health worker serving this  area. 

Be sure to consider any feedback  you received from your professor in previous assignments as you address  the following areas in your concept paper. 

Give an overview of your community to include any relevant  population, demographic, cultural, social, or economic characteristics. 

Identify a significant determinant of health that impacts your community. 

  • Identify a specific public health issue that is commonly seen by a multicultural or diverse population in the community. 
  • Describe a local health promotion program that is failing or  lacking in the community that could help meet the determinants of  health needs of the diverse population in the community. 
  • Discuss the community health framework/model that can be applied to the health promotion program.
  • Discuss a law or policy that could alleviate determinant of health issues if it were in place.
  • Discuss the role a CHW would play in addressing determinants  of health, multicultural or diverse populations, and health equity in  the community. 
  • Identify the role a CHW can play and the collaboration  needed with others in the community to effect system, environmental, and  policy changes. 
  • Discuss the skills and traits a CHW would need to be a successful change agent in this community. 
  • Conclude your concept paper with recommendations and expectations of positive change in the public health of the community. 

Columbia Southern University

Reply to both responses.

Jennifer Ryan

I don’t feel that Pacific has any damages against Fred. §Section 2-610 states that when “either party repudiates the contract with respect to a performance not yet due the loss of which will substantially impair the value of the contract to the other…”; right there Pacific did not suffer any loss as they were able to resell the same boat for $500, more than they were selling to Fred. Section § 2-706 allow Pacific to resell the boat and recover the difference between the resale price and the contract price together with any incidental damages allowed but less expenses saved in consequence of the buyer’s (Links to an external site.) breach. Again, Pacific didn’t lose anything but in face made $500 more than the previous selling price. Another section of the UCC § 2-708 Seller’s Damages for Non-acceptance or Repudiation (2) states if the measure of damages provided is inadequate to put the seller (Links to an external site.) in as good a position as performance would have done then the measure of damages is the profit (including reasonable overhead) which the seller would have made from full performance by the buyer (Links to an external site.), together with any incidental damages provided due allowance for costs reasonably incurred and due credit for payments or proceeds of resale. Pacific promptly resold the same boat Fred rejected for more money than they were selling to Fred. This all seems to point to the fact that Pacific had no right to bring any action for damages for Fred’s.

Lonnie Wynne

In this case Pacific Marine, Inc originally had a contract to sell a 20ft Sailboat to Fred Jones for $25K. Fred decided to back out of the offer. Pacific Marine successfully sells the boat to another person for $500 more than the original price. Now after sell the the boat Pacific Marine is trying to go after Fred for his breach of contract. I personally don’t this Pacific Marine has a fighting chance since they did not take a loss for the boat. In fact, Fred is arguing that because Pacific Marine took a $500 gain they cannot go after Fred for any damages because there were no damages.

According to UCC 2-610. Anticipatory Repudiation. “When either party repudiates the contract (Links to an external site.) with respect to a performance not yet due the loss of which will substantially impair the value of the contract to the other”. (Cornell law, 2021) While this is true for most cases. I don’t think it is true for this case. Fred backed out of the del well before taking delivery of the Sailboat thus allowing Pacific Marine enough time to put it back on the market. Pacific Marine did decide to try and resale the Sailboat and was successful enough to make an additional $500 on the new deal. I believe if Pacific Marine continues to try an go after Fred for breach of contract that they would most likely end up paying out more money for lawyer an court fees and ultimately lose the case. Pacific Marine should take their $500 profit and leave well enough

Columbia Southern University

Instructions Case Study

Cookie Creations (Continued)
Part I
Natalie is struggling to keep up with the recording of her accounting transactions. She is spending a lot of time marketing and selling mixers and giving her cookie classes. Her friend John is an accounting student who runs his own accounting service. He has asked Natalie if she would like to have him do her accounting.

John and Natalie meet and discuss her business. John suggests that he do the tasks listed below for Natalie.

Hold cash until there is enough to be deposited. (He would keep the cash locked up in his vehicle). He would also take all of the deposits to the bank at least twice a month.

Write and sign all of the checks.

  1. Record all of the deposits in the accounting records.
  2. Record all of the checks in the accounting records.
  3. Prepare the monthly bank reconciliation.
  4. Transfer all of Natalie’s manual accounting records to his computer accounting program. (John would maintain all of the accounting information that he keeps for his clients on his laptop computer.)
  5. Prepare monthly financial statements for Natalie to review.
  6. Write himself a check every month for the work he has done for Natalie.
  7. For Part I of the assignment, identify the weaknesses in internal control that you see in the system that John is recommending. Can you suggest any improvements if Natalie hires John to do the accounting?
  8. Part I should be a minimum of three pages in length. Please use APA format. While there are no required resources, please be sure that any sources used have proper citations.

Part II

Natalie decides that she cannot afford to hire John to do her accounting. One way that she can ensure that her cash account does not have any errors and is accurate and up-to-date is to prepare a bank reconciliation at the end of each month. Natalie would like you to help her. She asks you to prepare a bank reconciliation for June 2020 using the information below.

General Ledger Cookie Creations

Additionally, take the following information into account.

On June 30th, there were two outstanding checks: #595 for $238 and #604 for $297.

Premier Bank made a posting error to the bank statement: Check #603 was issued for $425, not $452.

The deposit made on June 20 was for $125, which Natalie received for teaching a class. Natalie made an error in recording this transaction.

The electronic funds transfer (EFT) was for Natalie’s cell phone use. Remember that she uses this phone only for business.

The NSF check was from Ron Black. Natalie received this check for teaching a class to Ron’s children. Natalie contacted Ron, and he assured her that she will receive a check in the mail for the outstanding amount of the invoice and the NSF bank charge.

  1. For Part II of the assignment, complete the tasks below.
  2. Prepare Cookie Creations’ bank reconciliation for June 30.
  3. Prepare any necessary adjusting entries at June 30.
  4. If a balance sheet is prepared for Cookie Creations at June 30, what balance will be reported as cash in the Current Assets section?

Columbia Southern University

Instructions
Copyright Scenario

Jim Clark, an artist in Birmingham, submitted his logo design for the Birmingham Cougars football team, and the Cougars used a logo design that was very similar to Clark’s design for their team logo during the 1996–1998 seasons. Clark sued the Cougars for copyright infringement for using his design as their logo without his permission, and the court ruled that the Cougars had improperly used Clark’s design for their logo and had infringed on his copyright of that design.

The Cougars changed their logo for the 1999 season, but they started showing highlight films from their 1996–1998 seasons in their stadium, on their website, and on their television channel, and the logo that Clark had designed and that the Cougars had improperly used during those seasons appeared in the highlight films.

Clark sued the Cougars a second time, alleging that the appearance of the logo he designed in the highlight films was, again, copyright infringement.

The Cougars assert two defenses to Clark’s claim of copyright infringement the second time around.

  1. The Cougars contended that their use of the 1996–1998 logo in the highlight films was protected by the fair use doctrine.
  2. Since Clark and the Cougars were both citizens of Birmingham, there was no commerce among the states or interstate commerce involved, so Congress had no authority to make laws that protected Clark’s copyright.

In a two-page case study, address the questions below.

  1. Is the Cougar’s use of the logo on the highlight films protected by the fair use doctrine?
  2. Is the Cougar’s claim that Congress does not have the power to regulate copyright within a single state valid?

As you answer these two questions about the Cougar’s use of the logo, explain how the evolution of the Commerce Clause of the Constitution of the United States affects businesses and the Cougars in particular. Also, be sure to address the categories of intellectual properties protected by the Constitution of the United States.

Your case study should be at least two pages in length and include at least two outside sources. Be sure to use APA formatting for all citations and references.

Columbia Southern University

Research Project Essay and Discussion: Rush Johnson Farms, Inc.

The Scenario

Rush Johnson Farms, Inc., (Johnson) is thinking of filing a lawsuit against Missouri Farmers Association, Inc., (MFA) for $4,094.60, which Johnson claimed to be the balance due for soybeans sold to MFA. MFA said it withheld the amount on the ground that Johnson had entered into a contract to deliver 6,000 bushels of beans and had failed to deliver the entire amount and the sum MFA withheld represented damages to MFA for the shortage.

When Johnson was getting ready to sell his 1972 crop in 1973, he stated he had checked with a number of elevators to determine the market price of soybeans. He called the MFA elevator at Salisbury and requested he be notified when beans reached $4.00 a bushel. On January 2, 1973, the secretary at the elevator called Johnson and told him beans had reached $4.02 per bushel. He stated he agreed to sell his crop at the $4.02 figure and estimated he would have from 5,000 to 6,000 bushels. The elevator secretary has told everyone that her understanding was the agreement was to sell the definite quantity of 6,000 bushels.

Within a few days after January 2, the secretary mailed Johnson a written contract calling for the sale of 6,000 bushels of soybeans at $4.02 per bushel. Johnson stated he received the contract and was excited, but he did not contact the elevator about any difference in understanding of number of bushels sold. Instead he threw the contract away.

Johnson contended the contract was not for a definite quantity of beans. Further, Johnson argued the contract was oral and under sections of the UCC could not be proven because it involved more than $500 and was not in writing signed by him. As a result, he was not obligated to the entire 6,000 bushels. MFA countered that Johnson was a “merchant” within the UCC definition and therefore the specifics of the oral representation would be admissible.

Instructions

  • After reading the scenario, write an essay responding to the questions below.
  • To answer the questions, please conduct research beyond the textbook from this course – for example, utilize Web sources, resources at your public library, and your professional networks.
  • Your essay should be a two-page document that you will upload to this discussion board.
  • Post your essay in the discussion board no later than the due date (listed in the top-right corner of this discussion page.

Questions

  1. Is a farmer a merchant under the UCC?
  2. Does the UCC apply to this transaction?
  3. Did there need to be a contract in writing for either party to prevail? If not, how would the UCC dictate how the disposition of this case would be? Remember, the UCC is written to address circumstances such as these where there is either no writing, or there is an incomplete writing.

Columbia Southern University

Case studies are an essential learning strategy in business classes because they provide an opportunity for you to critically analyze events that have taken place in real-life businesses. This develops your critical thinking and research skills as you research the competition and industry in which your business resides in order to formulate a recommendation for the challenges faced by the company.

For this unit, review the “Marketing Excellence: BMW” case study on pp. 273 of your textbook. This assignment will be comprised of two parts; one part will ask you to respond to questions, and the other will require you to complete a case analysis.

Part 1

Evaluate this case, and respond to each of the following questions using both theory and practical managerial thinking. 

  • Examine and apply the consumer-buying process for BMW. Identify the steps and the application to BMW. How does this process assist the marketing team at BMW? 
  • How could data analytics be used to research the consumer in order to ensure a strong understanding of overall business and marketing outcomes at BMW?
  • Within the case, several clearly different target markets are identified. What does BMW do well to target each of these groups, and what could it do better? Within your response, include the process of segmentation.

Your Part 1 response must be at least two pages in length. Follow APA Style when creating citations and references for this assignment. Note that you will submit Part 1 and Part 2 in one document.

Part 2

Complete a case analysis of BMW. This requires that you conduct research on BMW beyond the case study material in the textbook. In the case analysis, you will look at the situational analysis, problem, and alternatives, and you will provide a recommendation. Refer to the instructions below as you construct your analysis.

  • Situational Analysis 
    • Discuss the external environment through the compilation of a PEST (political, economic, sociocultural, and technology) analysis.
    • Discuss the internal and external environment through the compilation of a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis.
  • Problem  
    • Identify at least one organizational problem that BMW is currently having or one in which you project it will have in the future. Base this upon your research and critical thinking. 
  • Alternatives 
    • Compile three or four potential marketing-related solutions to the problem above. Remember that these are potential alternatives; you will not select all of the alternatives to solve the problem. 
  • Recommendation (Marketing Strategy) 
    • Select one or two of the alternatives above to solve the problem that you identified in this case analysis. 
    • Discuss your rationale for choosing these and not the others. Include supporting research that will increase the depth of your analysis.

In order to successfully complete Part 2 of this case study, you need to review the video and task learning guides (TLGs) below. The following resources will provide you with the skills to research industries/competitors. 

Company and Industry Research video (transcript for Company and Industry Research video)
How to Find Company Information in the Business Source Ultimate Database TLG
How to Search for Articles With a Company Focus TLG

Columbia Southern University

Instructions
Contract Scenario

Calvin had been an avid coin collector for many years, and the most valuable coin in his collection was an uncirculated, mint condition, 1943 Lincoln penny made of copper (most pennies made during World War II were made of zinc because copper was needed in the war effort). That penny had a value of between $60,000 and $95,000.

In August of 2017, Calvin had a serious stroke that left him unable to speak or walk, but his doctor assured his family that Calvin would recover over time with intensive therapy.

Calvin was a widower and did not have any children, but he had several nephews who visited him from time to time as he recovered. None of the nephews had any real interest in Calvin’s coin collection. One of Calvin’s nephews, Billy, who visited Calvin more often than the other nephews, sometimes listened to Calvin talk (talking was a part of Calvin’s therapy) about his mounting medical bills and his coin collection, but Billy never showed much interest in the medical bills or the coin collection.

In October, as Calvin’s recovery progressed slowly, Billy visited Calvin and told Calvin that he had been reading about coin collecting, and he realized that Calvin’s collection, especially the 1943 Lincoln copper penny, was valuable, and Billy suggested that Calvin should consider selling the 1943 Lincoln copper penny and use the proceeds to pay his medical bills. Calvin resisted the idea at first, but Billy continued to urge Calvin to sell the penny so that he would not have to worry about the medical bills. Finally, when Billy told Calvin that he would arrange the sale of the penny for a commission of just 5% of the sale price of the penny, Calvin began to think that selling the coin might be a good idea. He was still a little confused about how the sale would work and what Billy would do to make sure that the penny would be sold for the best price. Calvin told Billy that he thought that the penny was worth almost $100,000, but Billy assured Calvin that the market had changed recently, and that the penny was now worth $40,000 to $45,000. Eventually, Calvin allowed Billy to sell the penny for the best price he could get and to take a 5% commission for arranging the sale of the penny. Billy then sold the penny to a friend for $40,000, took his 5% commission, and paid the remainder of the sale price to Calvin.

A few months later, as Calvin continued to recover, he read a story in a coin collecting magazine about how an uncirculated, mint condition, 1943 Lincoln penny made of copper had just sold at auction for more than $100,000, and Calvin began to wonder if Billy had taken advantage of him. Calvin consulted a lawyer and asked the two questions below.

  • Did he (Calvin) have the mental capacity to enter into the contract when he agreed to let Billy sell the penny? What would he (Calvin) have to prove to show a court that he did not have the necessary mental capacity when he authorized Billy to sell the penny?
  • Did Billy exert undue influence over Calvin to cause Calvin to enter into the contract that allowed Billy to sell the penny?

What do you think? Does Calvin have a case to set aside the contract with Billy on either of these theories?

Your case study should be at least two pages in length and include at least two outside sources. Be sure to use APA formatting for all citations and references.

Columbia Southern University

I need help with a Business question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

1.    The structure of government contracting is complicated but necessary. Federal government spends billions of dollars on contracts. According to the White House, approximately one out of every ten dollars of Federal government spending going to contractors. As the government is spending taxpayer dollars. It is government’s responsibility to make sure that it spends wisely and eliminates wastes. Also, the government must ensure the procurement process running smoothly while trying to avoid as much corruption as possible. Therefore, regulations and policies are necessary.  On the other hand, the complicated regulations and policies can become a barrier for many emerging companies, startups and small businesses who attempt to enter the government contracting market.  In addition to Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR), there are many other rules and regulations, local laws, agency policies that can affect a procurement.

Speaking of contract management in 21st century, agencies should invest more in their new hire. In America, everything is becoming digital, including government procurement. For example, using Contractor Performance Assessment Reporting System (CPARS) to check and record a specific vendor’s past performance. Agencies depends on data analysis to calculate contract costs and secure savings from each purchase. However, the senior and veteran employees are not comfortable with dealing modern technology. To navigate the digital transformation, recruiting tech- savvy younger workers become critical. These new hires might be good at keystrokes, but they lack interpersonal skills which are important in contract administration.  So, the focus of new workforce training perhaps should include people skills apart from regulations and procedures training. 

2.    There are many factors contribute to the successful implementation of a federal government contract. First of all, a clear and open communication between government and contractors. A contract between the government and a contractor reflects a buyer and seller relationship. In this relationship, the government (buyer)’s objectives include obtaining the product or service at the right quality, right quantity and at best price. Government also must ensure that the product or service is procured in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulations.  The contractors on the other hand have the objectives of making a profit. Each party has its own goals. This may result in withholding information. Therefore, it is critical to have a clear and open communication between the Contracting Officers, Program Managers and the contractors.  Secondly, the contractors need to develop a well-defined technical approach and well-structured procedures to perform the work. In addition, maintaining a pool of qualified personnel who can implement the plan is important. The employees need to have the right education, training, and experience. Also, a good organizational structure is another critical factor. Everyone’s responsibilities in an organization are well defined. Finally, the ability to monitor and control the cost while maintaining a heathy cashflow.  Cost is the major concern in the government contracting. In the end, the government does not want to put taxpayer dollars at risk.

Columbia Southern University

This assignment provides you with an opportunity to discuss an insight you gained in this unit by comparing the development of two Early Medieval cultures.

For this assignment, choose two specific Western cultures between 632-1000 C.E. Using these, build a comparison that identifies at least three differences and three similarities from political leadership, and economic and social and/or cultural elements. Highlight any shared influences, biases, and perspectives. Before your conclusion, you will write a paragraph in which you reflect on the guidelines for ethical and rigorous study of cultures detailed at the beginning of the unit lesson (mentioned in Step 1 below). As you finish your assignment, include conclusions drawn from both your comparisons and your reflection. The assignment steps below will provide more guidance.

Step 1: Review the section at the beginning of the Unit Lesson entitled “Be Careful When Making Historical Assumptions.”

Step 2: Choose two appropriate sources, not including the textbook. At least one source must come from the CSU Online Library. The Academic Search Ultimate and eBook Academic Collection databases in the CSU Online Library would be good places to start your search. Resources should be credible and peer-reviewed by historians and cannot include Wikipedia, Biography.com, History.com, or any other .com site; resources should also not be taken from any type of message board or other encyclopedia-type sites, including those listed in the CSU Online Library research guides, which are provided for quick reference only and not for paper research.

If you need additional help with using or locating information in the CSU Online Library, there are library video tutorials available on the main page of the online library under the heading “Research Guides.”

Step 3: Complete your research using the guidelines on ethical and rigorous research you reviewed in Step 1:

  • Choose two specific times and locations to research. Specific times and locations are necessary to avoid generalization.
  • Avoid all generalization beyond the data you have researched on those times and locations, including projections of your own views.
  • Avoid anachronism, which is the use of data or circumstances from today as if they are evidence of what the past means. Form your conclusions using only data from the past.
  • Compare like terms, meaning the same kinds of things, in a point-by-point comparison (rather than writing about one culture and then the other).
  • Consider artifacts and other cultural products.
  • Use strong sources as indicated above.
  • Include at least one comparison drawn from each of the following: 1) politics; 2) social organization or cultural products; and 3) the economy.

Step 4: Prepare a reflection on your use of the guidelines for ethical and rigorous historical research. What was your experience of attempting to limit generalization, anachronism, and use of weak sources? The assignment is not considered complete without this component.

Step 5: Write your essay in this order without headings: introduction, comparisons, reflection, conclusions. Your essay must be at least 500 words in length.

Please review the guidelines on essay writing that were presented at the end of the Unit III Scholarly Activity instructions; they will help guide you in this assignment. 

History Book: A History of Western Society, Concise Edition, Volume 1 by Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks 

CSU Online Library: https://libguides.columbiasouthern.edu/

Columbia Southern University

You are a major stockholder in a multi-national corporation that is considering opening a facility in an underdeveloped country known for questionable human rights policies. The arguments in favor of the move include that it would provide employment for people who currently have none; it would decrease production costs, thereby increasing profits and return on your investment; and it would decrease the cost of the product for the consumers, potentially further expanding revenues and increasing returns. The arguments against opening the facility include the fact that companies operating in the region have been found treating employees badly by implementing policies such as extremely low wages relative to other countries, demanding long hours without providing overtime, and occasionally employing children.

You are planning to attend a shareholder’s meeting at which this topic will be discussed. You have been asked to provide your opinion on whether the facility should be opened. Determine whether you agree or disagree with the proposal to open a facility in the region.

For this assignment, create a PowerPoint presentation to convince the organizational leaders whether the described facility should be opened or not. The PowerPoint should be at least 10 slides, not including the title and reference slides, and does not require any outside research, although additional research can be used. The textbook contains information that can be useful for this assignment, so it is recommended that it be used. Make sure to properly cite the textbook or any other source used.

For this assignment, make sure to discuss the following.

  1. Describe the issues to be addressed (two slides).
  2. Provide reasons for why you agree or disagree with opening the facility (two slides).
  3. Identify the role emotion plays in your recommendation (two slides).
  4. Explain how any emotion did, or did not, impact reason (two slides).
  5. Explain the reasoning process utilized to come to the conclusions reported in the presentation (two slides).

Columbia Southern University

Instructions
Waterways (Chapter 27)

For this assignment, you will apply what you have learned from the unit lesson and the required unit resources. 

Waterways put much emphasis on cash flow when it plans for capital investments. The company chose its discount rate of 8% based on the rate of return that it must pay its owners and creditors. Using that rate, Waterways then uses different methods to determine the best decisions for making capital outlays.

This year, Waterways is considering buying five new backhoes to replace the backhoes it now has. The new backhoes are faster, cost less to run, provide for more accurate trench digging, have comfort features for the operators, and have 1-year maintenance agreements to go with them. The old backhoes are working just fine, but they do require considerable maintenance. The backhoe operators are very familiar with the old backhoes and would need to learn some new skills to use the new backhoes.

The following information is available to use in deciding whether to purchase the new backhoes.

InformationOld BackhoesNew BackhoesPurchase cost when new$90,000$200,000Salvage value now$42,000Investment in major overhaul needed in next year$55,000Salvage value in 8 years$15,000$90,000Remaining life8 years8 yearsNet cash flow generated each year$30,425             $43,900

Instructions:

  • In the following methods, evaluate whether to purchase the new equipment or to overhaul the old equipment. (Hint: For the old machine, the initial investment is the cost of the overhaul. For the new machine, subtract the salvage value of the old machine to determine the initial cost of the investment.)
    • Use the net present value method for buying new or keeping the old.
    • Use the payback method for each choice. (Hint: For the old machine, evaluate the payback of an overhaul.)
    • Compare the profitability index for each choice.
    • Compare the internal rate of return for each choice to the required 8% discount rate.
  • Are there any intangible benefits or negatives that would influence this decision?
  • What decision would you make, and why? 

Columbia Southern University

Case Study: The First Rate Training Company

Submit your answers and be prepared to discuss in the live class session.

Under an existing advisory and assistance services contract, the First Rate Training Company (FRTC) prepared a detailed plan for the scientific and technical training of your agency’s personnel. The plan included numerous manning and staffing suggestions, such as minimum education and detailed experience requirements for instructors. These suggestions were based upon the minimum qualifications of current FRTC instructors. The entire plan was subsequently incorporated into a new request for proposals released by your office last week. That RFP requires contractors to execute and conduct the training as outlined in FRTC’s plan. The solicitation utilized full and open competition procedures. Proposals are due in approximately three weeks.

Today your network contract manager (NCM) received a call from Ken Hitchcock, president of Train-All, a company you expected to propose to your RFP. Mr. Hitchcock complained that the requirements document in your RFP looks “amazingly like FRTC’s training brochure.” Before angrily hanging up the phone, he added, “How can we possibly compete? It looks like FRTC wrote the requirement so that only they can win the award!”

The NCM has directed you to conduct a thorough analysis of the situation and, if necessary, recommend a plan to eliminate or mitigate any potential offeror conflicts of interest. Your objective is to ensure impartiality and objectivity in this acquisition.

Here’s the issue: Is First Rate being given an unfair competitive advantage based on its performance of the advisory and assistance contract? After your initial look at the situation, you have determined there are four distinctly different scenarios that could apply:

a) First Rate may be awarded the new training contract although it served in an advisory and assistance service capacity

b) First Rate may not be awarded the new training contract because it is a personal services contract

c) First Rate may not be awarded the new training contract because scientific and technical training is an inherently governmental function

d) First Rate may not be awarded the new training contract because its drafting of the training plan presents a conflict of interest.

  1. Define Organizational Conflict of Interest (OCI), to include at least two different types of OCIs (i.e., circumstances leading to a possible OCI)?
  2. Does an OCI exist in this circumstance? Explain.
  3. If you find that there is an OCI, how will you remedy the situation?
  4. If you don’t believe there is a conflict, how will you address Mr. Hitchcock’s complaint?
  5. Can you award to FRTC even if you determine there is an OCI?

Columbia Southern University

QUESTION 1

  1. In the not-too-distant past, it was common for Occupational Safety and Health professionals to consider the hierarchy of controls according to the following priority order: 
    1. Engineering controls,
    2. Administrative controls
    3. Personal Protective Equipment
    4. However, eliminating the hazard and substitution have usurped engineering control’s position at the top of the hierarchy although they have always been obvious best options, just not always included in discussions of the hierarchy of controls. Identify two examples where elimination of the hazard or substitution was, or might be, applied as a means of hazard control. Discuss some of the pros and cons of this option as compared to the other options in the hierarchy. You may also select examples from places you have worked or for which you have some familiarity.
       

QUESTION 2

  1. In Unit III, you sent a document in which you informed management at Gemstone Fabricators, Inc. that it would need to enhance its accountability specifications in its performance evaluations for managers. You also pointed out the need to make sure that employees who have been asked to be involved in the safety endeavors at Gemstone understand and are trained in the roles they are expected to play.

    Cindy is the plant manager from Gemstone, and she has asked you to perform a sound level survey and noise dosimetry in the fabrication shop, which can get pretty noisy when all three mechanical power presses and the 12-foot shear are running at the same time for several hours a day. She also asked that you identify noise level exposures in the adjacent welding department. Your results indicate that the noise levels in the area are just above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure level for an average day in the fabrication department.

    The welding department is adjacent to the fabrication department, and there is no separating wall. The welding operations are not quite as noisy, although the crackle of a well-adjusted MIG welder can be rather loud when welding mild steel. Noise monitoring and dosimetry of the welders indicated an exposure of just over OSHA’s Action Level of 85 Dba. In addition, you remember taking the survey readings and watching the noise level jump in the welding shop every time the power presses or shear cycled in the fabrication area.

    After consulting with fellow industrial hygienists, it was determined that setting up a 12′ X 30′ noise barrier wall between the fabrication area and the welding area and adding noise absorption panels to both sides of the barrier wall and to the white-painted concrete walls in the fabrication department would decrease the sound levels in the welding area to several decibels below OSHA’s Action Level.

    Of course, these engineering controls will cost $33,000 dollars. This is compared to a continuing hearing conservation program to include annual audiograms, or hearing tests, annual training, and providing noise protection for the welding department which is estimated to cost $9,000 per year. This amount would be saved each year if the engineering controls are installed.

    If the company takes out a loan for $33,000 at 5% interest, what will the payback period be for the loan? Please consult your unit lesson for the necessary formulas. What would be your recommendation to the employer with respect to the options available? Please show your work. Make sure you justify your reasoning and that you consider the hierarchy of controls in your discussion.

     

Columbia Southern University

I’m working on a accounting case study and need support to help me understand better.

Instructions
Waterways (Chapter 19) 

Waterways Corporation is a private corporation formed for the purpose of providing the products and the services needed to irrigate farms, parks, commercial projects, and private lawns. It has a centrally located factory in a U.S. city that manufactures the products it markets to retail outlets across the nation. It also maintains a division that performs installation and warranty servicing in six metropolitan areas.

The mission of Waterways is to manufacture quality parts that can be used for effective irrigation projects that also conserve water. By that effort, the company hopes to satisfy its customers, perform rapid and responsible service, and serve the community and the employees who represent them in each community.

The company has been growing rapidly, so management is considering new ideas to help the company continue its growth and maintain the high quality of its products.

Waterways was founded by Will Winkman, who is the company president and chief executive officer (CEO). Working with him from the company’s inception is Will’s brother, Ben, whose sprinkler designs and ideas about the installation of proper systems have been a major basis of the company’s success. Ben is the vice president who oversees all aspects of design and production in the company.

The factory itself is managed by Todd Senter, who hires his line managers to supervise the factory employees. The factory makes all of the parts for the irrigation systems. The purchasing department is managed by Helen Hines.

The installation and training division is overseen by vice president, Henry Writer, who supervises the managers of the six local installation operations. Each of these local managers hires his or her own local service people. These service employees are trained by the home office under Henry Writer’s direction because of the uniqueness of the company’s products.

There is a small human resources department under the direction of Sally Fenton, a vice president who handles the employee paperwork, though hiring is actually performed by the separate departments. Teresa Totter is the vice president who heads the sales and marketing area; she oversees 10 well-trained salespeople.

The accounting and finance division of the company is headed by Ann Headman, who is the chief financial officer (CFO) and a company vice president; she is a member of the Institute of Management Accountants and holds a certificate in management accounting. She has a small staff of accountants, including a controller and a treasurer, and a staff of accounting input operators who maintain the financial records.

A partial list of Waterways’ accounts and their balances for the month of November is itemized below.

Accounts Receivable$275,000Advertising Expenses54,000Cash260,000Depreciation – Factory Equipment16,800Depreciation – Office Equipment2,400Direct Labor42,000Factory Supplies Used16,800Factory Utilities10,200Finished Goods Inventory, November 3068,800Finished Goods Inventory, October 3172,550Indirect Labor48,000Office Supplies Expense1,600Other Administrative Expenses72,000Prepaid Expenses41,250Raw Materials Inventory, November 3052,700Raw Materials Inventory, October 3138,000Raw Materials Purchases184,500Rent – Factory Equipment47,000Repairs – Factory Equipment4,500Salaries325,000Sales Revenue1,350,000Sales Commissions40,500Work in Process Inventory, October 3152,700Work in Process Inventory, November 3042,000

Instructions:

  • Based on the information given, construct an organizational chart of the Waterways Corporation. You may create the organizational chart in Microsoft Word or Excel.
  • A list of accounts and their values are given above. From this information, prepare a cost of goods manufactured schedule, an income statement, and a partial balance sheet for the month of November, which should be created using Excel.

If you elect to create your organizational chart in a Word document, then you will need to submit both a Word document (containing the organizational chart) and an Excel document (containing the cost of goods manufactured schedule, income statement, and partial balance sheet). If you elect to create your organizational chart in Excel, you will only submit an Excel document, which would contain all components of the assignment.

Columbia Southern University

I’m working on a business case study and need an explanation to help me understand better.

Instructions
Cookie Creations (Chapters 11 and 15)

This assignment is a continuation of the Cookie Creations case study and focuses on Cookie Creations’ liabilities (current and long-term). From the information gathered from the unit lesson, required unit resources, and suggested unit resources, read the Cookie Creations case study below, which is also available on p.11-37 (Chapter 11) and p. 15-38 (Chapter 15) in the textbook.

The case study allows you to apply what you have learned about liabilities and the accounting process. This assignment will allow you to practice what you have learned so far.

Part I

Recall that Cookie Creations sells fine European mixers that it purchases from Kzinski Supply Company. Kzinski warrants the mixers to be free of defects in material and workmanship for 1 year from the date of original purchase. If the mixer has such a defect, Kzinski will repair or replace the mixer free of charge for parts and labor. The product must be shipped prepaid to an authorized Kzinski service center. The consumer pays the cost to ship the mixer. The cost to return the product to the consumer is paid by Kzinski.

The authorized service center is located in Boston. Because Cookie Creations values serving its customers, it pays the shipping to Boston for any mixers needing repair under Kzinski’s warranty terms. Based on past experience, Kzinski has found that approximately 10% of mixers are returned for repair or replacement. The average cost to ship a mixer to Boston is $60.

The following transactions take place in 2020 and 2021.

  1. A total of 30 mixers are sold in 2020.
  2. Four of the mixers sold in 2020 are returned for repair in 2021. The total shipping cost for returning these four mixers to Boston is $210.
  3. A total of 40 mixers are sold in 2021.
  4. Two of the mixers sold in 2021 are returned for repair in 2021. The total shipping cost for returning these two mixers to Boston is $55.

For Part I of the assignment, complete the tasks listed below using Excel.

  1. Calculate Cookie Creations’ warranty liability for the shipping costs at December 31, 2020.
  2. Record the estimated warranty liability at December 31, 2020.
  3. Prepare the summary journal entry (or entries) to record the shipment of the six mixers (four from the 2020 sales and two from the 2021 sales) for warranty repair in 2021. d.
  4. Calculate Cookie Creations’ warranty liability at December 31, 2021. (Hint: Note that there is no liability outstanding for the mixers sold in 2020. The 1-year warranty period has expired.)
  5. Record the estimated warranty liability at December 31, 2021. (Hint: Similar to accounting for bad debts, consider any existing balance in the warranty liability account when you prepare your entry. You will find it helpful to prepare a general ledger account for the warranty liability and to post the above transactions.)
Part II

Natalie and Curtis have been experiencing great demand for their cookies and muffins. As a result, they are now thinking about buying a commercial oven. They know which oven they want and that it will cost $17,000. The company already has $5,000 set aside for the purchase and will need to borrow the rest.

Natalie and Curtis met with a bank manager to discuss their options. She is willing to lend Cookie & Coffee Creations Inc. $12,000 on November 1, 2020, for 3 years at a 5% interest rate. The terms provide for fixed principal payments of $2,000 on May 1 and November 1 of each year plus 6 months of interest.

For Part II of the assignment, complete the tasks listed below.

  1. Prepare a payment schedule for the life of the note.
  2. Prepare the journal entry for the purchase of the oven and the issue of the note payable on November 1, 2020.
  3. Prepare the journal entries on May 1 and November 1 for the note.
  4. Determine the current portion of the note payable and the long-term portion of the note payable at October 31, 2021.

Parts I and II should be submitted in a single Excel spreadsheet. You will use a new tab to complete each transaction for both Parts I and II for a total of nine separate tabs or sheets. Submit the Excel spreadsheet in Blackboard.

Columbia Southern University

I need support with this Biology question so I can learn better.

Instructions

In the mid-1950s, the first study linking cigarette smoking to lung cancer was published. In the decades that followed, many other studies supported this finding and a host of other health-related effects attributed to smoking were uncovered.

Over the last few decades, cities and states have created local regulations prohibiting smoking in certain public places. In 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration was given regulatory authority of all tobacco products.

Chapter 20 of your textbook begins with a comparison of two sources of inhalable nicotine: traditional tobacco cigarettes and E-cigarettes. Because E-cigarettes are a relatively new technology, less is known about the long-term effects of the firsthand and secondhand inhalation of vaping products. However, in recent years they have been treated and regulated similarly to traditional cigarettes.

Your assignment for this unit is to create a 10- to 12-slide PowerPoint presentation that covers the following elements:

  • the anatomy and physiology of respiration (e.g., explain how breathing works);
  • the effects of the inhalation of smoke and E-cigarette vapor on gas exchange in the lungs;
  • specific diseases associated with smoking, both pulmonary and cardiovascular; and
  • lastly, based on what you know about E-cigarettes from the reading and your own research, defend or oppose the regulation of vaping products as traditional cigarettes.

You will need to cite and reference at least one article from the CSU Library databases as one of your sources of information.

CSU Library Database Instructions

  • Open the CSU Online Library link in your student portal.
  • Under “discovery search,” click the tab for “articles.””
  • In the keyword search field, type keyword “vaping” and/or “E-cigarette” to find articles that cover this topic. You may get different results doing separate searches for each keyword. The keywords “electronic cigarette” may also be used.
  • From the list of available articles that comes up, select one that interests you.
  • Click on the article link, then click on “PDF full text or HTML full text,” and read the article. (Note: Not all articles will provide the full text; if your choice does not, you will have to select a different article.)
  • Discuss what you learned from your chosen articles in 1-2 slides in your presentation. Cite the article according to APA guidelines, and list it on your references slide.

PowerPoint slides should not contain a lot of text; use speaker notes to provide the details of your presentation. The general practice is to use no more than 5-6 bullet points per slide. The quality and depth of your speaker’s notes will be significantly factored into your grade.

Title and reference slides should be included. These do not count toward the 10- to 12-slide requirement. In addition to providing references on a reference slide, you need to cite your material in the slides as appropriate; use APA format for your references and citations.

Suggestions for Searching for Illustrations

Use at least 3 images in the presentation. When looking for illustrations to use, it is suggested that you type the subject into a search engine and click “images.” For your presentation, you are allowed to copy and paste images (being sure to cite and reference them). However, you are NOT allowed to copy and paste content, such as text, tables, and the like. As much as possible, your presentation needs to be in your own words.

PowerPoint Guidance

Do you need to refresh your knowledge concerning PowerPoint? Review this tutorial on PowerPoint Basics.

  • Click on the Notes tab on the right side of the tutorial screen to see a transcript of the PowerPoint webinar.
  • You can also search online for information concerning best practices about what should and should not be done when creating a PowerPoint presentation.

Notes:

  • As directed in the tutorial above, pay attention to the background and font colors in your presentation—try to avoid using plain black text on a white background, but also avoid using colors that are visually difficult to see (such as yellow text on a light background) or that are unpleasant (such as red text on a yellow background). Strive for a pleasing, visually appealing appearance.
  • Reminder: The speaker notes should provide the detail and discussion of your presentation, and everything in the presentation should be in your own words, not copied and pasted from a source.
Resources

Columbia Southern University

Scenario: A company called Colony Nursery and Landscaping opened a new store located a few hundred miles away from its original location. The company wants to implement an award system that awards their customers with points whenever customers make a purchase, but the two stores are not able to share information. Colony Nursery and Landscaping will need to implement an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system that will solve the information silo problem by collecting and making this user data available. Colony Nursery and Landscaping is hoping that by providing customers with this award system, they will be able to maintain competitive advantage. Colony Nursery and Landscaping cannot afford to purchase, develop, or maintain this system on-site, so they are investigating cloud solutions.

In addition, for many organizations, Colony Nursery and Landscaping included, information silos make it difficult to tap into needed information. Discuss whether or not the problem of information silos can be solved by using the cloud. Some organizations do not have the resources to construct or maintain their computer infrastructure, so they utilize cloud services instead to reduce costs and improve scalability. In this assignment, you will discuss whether or not the cloud offers solutions for Colony Nursery and Landscaping and identify an application that the ERP system could provide. Compose an essay that includes the elements listed below.

  • Define what an information silo is.
  • Explain why information silos are a problem for organizations.
  • Discuss why organizations are moving to the cloud.
  • Determine whether or not using cloud services, such as a cloud-based host for data storage, would solve the ERP information silo problem at Colony Nursery and Landscaping.
  • Explain how using the ERP system and awards program would provide a competitive advantage for Colony Nursery and Landscaping.
  • Discuss why the implementation of an ERP system might require business process reengineering for Colony Nursery and Landscaping. Be sure to explain the business processes that will be affected (e.g., the customer awards system). Use diagrams or tables as needed, but this is not required.

Columbia Southern University

Reply in 75 words or more

Katlyn,

Contract management is a fundamental business process that manages the creation, implementation, and evaluation of contracts to maximize business performance and minimize risk (Patowarya, 2019). It is critical that businesses have a streamlined contract management process because contracts are legally binding. They determine many things for the project including timelines, the scope of work, warranty provisions, rights, and obligations of both parties. An organization’s contract management is the main driver of their success in a project. If a businesses’ contract management structure is underdeveloped and unorganized, they could face many operational and financial burdens. Effective contract management entails comprehensive analyzation of meeting key milestones within the contract in order to stay on track. Insights from contract management can also help identify areas for improvement to maximize profit and minimize risk. Performance needs to be tracked carefully, and if there is a lack in contract management within an organization, there will most likely be a lack of milestone tracking and cost tracking. 

           Contract administration consists of managing, negotiating, supporting, and executing the contract. Contract administration begins in the contract award stage and continues throughout the life of the contract. The contract administrator typically performs many tasks including ensuring all contractual agreements & payments are actioned, resolve any conflicts & disputes, coordinate tasks with internal team, make fair and reasonable decisions, analyze risks in contract changes, and report the current project status to management. The contracting officer uses several different techniques in contract administration, especially when working with a prime with subcontractors. These techniques include building strong relationships, provide regular progress reports (through reviewing prime & subcontract deliverables), and identifying the customer’s needs for a successful contract. Contracting officers are responsible for ensuring proper performance, ensuring compliance, and safeguarding the interests of the government. They need to continuously provide an oversight of the contract and its progress to ensure success.

           Even though the government does not necessarily have any direct responsibility for the subcontractor and subcontract (because of the lack of privity of contract), the government still has a large measure of control to enforce subcontracting goals. The prime contractor is held responsible for the actions of the subcontractor under the contract. The government enforces subcontracting goals with the prime contractor in the following ways: (1) making it a requirement that the government can review the prime’s purchasing system, (2) requiring the prime to include specific clauses in the subcontract, (3) maintaining the right to approve specific subcontracts, (4) requiring the prime to subcontract to disadvantaged groups, and (5) creating terms that protect the subcontractor of late payment from the prime (Feldman, 2020). Under the contract I work under, the government has required various FAR and HSAR clauses to be flowed down to our subcontractors in our subcontracts (in addition to the mandatory flow down clauses). In the event that there is a conflict between the H-Clauses in our contract and the FAR clauses, the Coast Guard made it a requirement in the subcontract that the H-Clauses in our contract prevail. The Coast Guard has additional rules/specifications that they wanted to include in the contract that pertain to our project.

           A teaming agreement is a written agreement between companies to combine resources to obtain and perform a government contract. Teaming agreements allow for the companies to team up and complement each other’s unique abilities to provide the government with the best combination of performance, cost, and delivery (Toomey, 2019). There are two different types of teaming agreements: (1) agreements that necessitate the award of a subcontract if a prime contract is awarded to the contractor and (2) agreements in effort to negotiate a subcontract if a prime contract is awarded to the contractor. When my company was in the pre-award stage for the U.S. Coast Guard OPC contract, they drafted subcontracts and teaming agreements that outlined the responsibilities, roles, and allocations of work related to the acquisition. The teaming agreements that were in place during the pre-award stage were terminated once we won the government contract and created a subcontract with them.

References

Feldman, S. W. (2020). Principles of government contracts (Seventh). West Academic Publishing. 

Patowarya, J. (2019, January 2). Ultimate Guide to Contract Management: Benefits & Best Practices. Zycus Procurement Blog. https://www.zycus.com/blog/contract-management/contract-management-guide.html. 

Toomey, E. L. (2019, March). Government Contracts: Teaming Agreements and Other Teaming Arrangements. Foley & Lardner LLP. https://www.foley.com/-/media/files/insights/publications/2013/10/government-contracts-teaming-agreements-and-other/files/government-contracts-teaming-agreements-and-other/fileattachment/government-contracts-teaming-agreements-and-other.pdf.

Columbia Southern University

*** MUST have access to the following textbook ***

Beebe, S. A., & Mottet, T. P. (2016). Business and professional communication: Principles and skills for leadership (3rd ed.). Pearson. https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/97801339736…

*** Study Guide is also attached with links to videos for this assignment as well ***

Instructions

There are two parts to this assignment that will allow you to express your understanding of this unit’s concepts.

For the first part, you will write a summary of the five communication principles covered in this unit and then offer analysis of the application of communication skills in real-world examples. Address the following in a written paper:

  • Begin with a brief introduction that defines communication and explains its importance in effective leadership.
  • Summarize each of the five communication principles discussed in this unit.
  • For each principle, include an example (professional or personal) where you have effectively (or ineffectively) employed that principle.
  • Analyze which of the three major communication skills were used in your example. Was your application of the skill effective? Why, or why not?

Your summary, example, and skills analysis for each principle should be between 200–225 words for a combined written total of 1,000–1,100 words.

For the second part of this assignment, you will create a collage from pictures or drawings illustrating communication principles and skills.

  • The collage should characterize the five communication principles and the three major communication skills discussed in this unit (and shown interwoven in Figure 1.2 in section 1.4.5 of your eTextbook).
  • The images you choose or draw should represent the principles and skills by depicting examples of how they are applied (e.g. seating a work-group session in a circle (collaboration) promotes equality and encourages open dialogue (non-verbal message).
  • Include captions briefly describing the images or place all image descriptions on a separate page.
  • Be creative! This collage should not only meet the above requirements but should be a representation of your understanding of how the concepts are applied.

There are many free web resources you can use for your collage such as Canva, befunky, Ribbet or Shape Collage. You can also use free stand-alone applications such as Adobe Spark, photo apps found on most smartphones (or available in the app stores), or simply create your collage in Word or PowerPoint.

Once you have created your collage and descriptions, you will need to export the final product or save it. You may insert your collage and descriptions in an appendix following the written portion of your assignment, or you may upload the two documents separately into this unit’s assignment area in Blackboard.

A title page is required. You must use at least one source (which may be your eTextbook) to support the written portion of this project. All sources used must have citations and references properly formatted in APA Style. Be sure to include proper APA references for all citations in your reference list.

Columbia Southern University

For this assignment, choose two specific Western cultures between 632-1000 C.E. Using these, build a comparison that identifies at least three differences and three similarities from political leadership, and economic and social and/or cultural elements. Highlight any shared influences, biases, and perspectives. Before your conclusion, you will write a paragraph in which you reflect on the guidelines for ethical and rigorous study of cultures detailed at the beginning of the unit lesson (mentioned in Step 1 below). As you finish your assignment, include conclusions drawn from both your comparisons and your reflection. The assignment steps below will provide more guidance.

Step 1: Be Careful When Making Historical Assumptions. You must cite accurately.

Step 2: Resources should be credible and peer-reviewed by historians and cannot include Wikipedia, Biography.com, History.com, or any other .com site; resources should also not be taken from any type of message board or other encyclopedia-type sites.

Step 3: Complete your research using the guidelines on ethical and rigorous research you reviewed in Step 1:

  • Choose two specific times and locations to research. Specific times and locations are necessary to avoid generalization.
  • Avoid all generalization beyond the data you have researched on those times and locations, including projections of your own views.
  • Avoid anachronism, which is the use of data or circumstances from today as if they are evidence of what the past means. Form your conclusions using only data from the past.
  • Compare like terms, meaning the same kinds of things, in a point-by-point comparison (rather than writing about one culture and then the other).
  • Consider artifacts and other cultural products.
  • Use strong sources as indicated above.
  • Include at least one comparison drawn from each of the following: 1) politics; 2) social organization or cultural products; and 3) the economy.

Step 4: Prepare a reflection on your use of the guidelines for ethical and rigorous historical research. What was your experience of attempting to limit generalization, anachronism, and use of weak sources? The assignment is not considered complete without this component.

Step 5: Write your essay in this order without headings: introduction, comparisons, reflection, conclusions. Your essay must 

Columbia Southern University

Early Medieval Cultures Essay

This assignment provides you with an opportunity to discuss an insight you gained in this unit by comparing the development of two Early Medieval cultures.

For this assignment, choose two specific Western cultures between 632-1000 C.E. Using these, build a comparison that identifies at least three differences and three similarities from political leadership, and economic and social and/or cultural elements. Highlight any shared influences, biases, and perspectives. Before your conclusion, you will write a paragraph in which you reflect on the guidelines for ethical and rigorous study of cultures detailed at the beginning of the unit lesson (mentioned in Step 1 below). As you finish your assignment, include conclusions drawn from both your comparisons and your reflection. The assignment steps below will provide more guidance.

Step 1: Review the section at the beginning of the Unit Lesson entitled “Be Careful When Making Historical Assumptions.”

Step 2: Choose two appropriate sources. Resources should be credible and peer-reviewed by historians and cannot include Wikipedia, Biography.com, History.com, or any other .com site;

Step 3: Complete your research using the guidelines on ethical and rigorous research you reviewed in Step 1:

  • Choose two specific times and locations to research. Specific times and locations are necessary to avoid generalization.
  • Avoid all generalization beyond the data you have researched on those times and locations, including projections of your own views.
  • Avoid anachronism, which is the use of data or circumstances from today as if they are evidence of what the past means. Form your conclusions using only data from the past.
  • Compare like terms, meaning the same kinds of things, in a point-by-point comparison (rather than writing about one culture and then the other).
  • Consider artifacts and other cultural products.
  • Use strong sources as indicated above.
  • Include at least one comparison drawn from each of the following: 1) politics; 2) social organization or cultural products; and 3) the economy.

Step 4: Prepare a reflection on your use of the guidelines for ethical and rigorous historical research. What was your experience of attempting to limit generalization, anachronism, and use of weak sources? The assignment is not considered complete without this component.

Step 5: Write your essay in this order without headings: introduction, comparisons, reflection, conclusions.

Columbia Southern University

Follow the directions below for the completion of the Research Proposal assignment for Unit III. If you have questions, please email your professor for assistance.

  • Purpose: The purpose of the research proposal is to help you to understand your project, to gain direction and feedback on your project, and to establish a blueprint for your project.
  • Description: In this assignment, you will create a research proposal consisting of three sections:
    • Section 1: What is the topic? (100-150 words)
    • Section 2: What is the controversy? Include paragraphs that detail both sides of the controversy. (300-400 words)
    • Section 3: Your tentative thesis statement (one to two sentences)
  • Research proposal example

All sources must be documented via APA citations and references. You may also seek out the guidance of the Success Center; the specialists are always there to assist you with your writing and comprehension.

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Instructions

Draft of Introduction and Literature Review

Follow the directions below for the completion of the introduction and literature review draft assignment for Unit IV. If you have questions, please email your professor for assistance.

Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to begin drafting your academic argumentative research paper.

Description: In this assignment, you will first write your literature review; then, you will write your introduction. Please see “Lesson 4: The Introduction” for details on why it is suggested that you begin the drafting process with the literature review instead of the introduction. The following details are requirements of the assignment:

  • Introduction (9-12 well-developed sentences/approximately 350 words): For more details about what is expected for each of the following sentences, please see “Lesson 4: The Introduction.” You may also want to review the “Example Introduction and Literature Review (with comments).” The following components must be included in the introduction (in the following order).
    • Sentence 1: Introduce the general topic
    • Sentence 2: Pro side (general)
    • Sentence 3: Con side (general)
    • Sentence 4: Narrow the scope (1)
    • Sentence 5: Examples of the narrowed topic
    • Sentence 6: Narrow the scope (2)
    • Sentence 7: Specific controversy
    • Sentence 8: Pro side (specific)
    • Sentence 9: Con side (specific)
    • Sentence 10: The thesis
  • Literature Review (800-900 words): For details about the structure of the literature review, you will want to review “Lesson 3: The Literature Review: The Process.” You may also want to review the “Example Introduction and Literature Review (with comments).” The link is below.
    • Literature review preface: This paragraph acts as a guide to what the reader can expect in the literature review.
    • Literature review body: This section includes three to four body paragraphs that discuss the history, terminology, and both sides of the controversy (pro and con).
    • Literature review conclusion: The conclusion signals that the literature review is ending, but it also acts as a kind of preface for the body of the paper by restating the thesis statement and establishing your argument once again.
  • Demonstrate how to summarize and paraphrase source materials.
  • Demonstrate the avoidance of plagiarism through proper use of APA citations and references for all paraphrased and quoted material.

Introduction and literature review example

Note: The conclusion is not presented in this example; however, the literature review conclusion is a requirement of the assignment.

You may also seek out the guidance of the Success Center; the specialists are always there to assist you with your writing and comprehension.

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Instructions

In this unit, we have discussed both the introduction and the literature review. Throughout the process of writing both of these sections, you have no doubt gained a better understanding of the controversy that you are exploring with your paper. You probably have a better sense of your argument and what you would like your points to be for your body paragraphs. Consider what you have experienced over the last few units. We are at the halfway point in the course, so think about how far you have come.

In this reflection, introduce your professor to your project. Speak about the pro and con sides of the controversy, and present your thesis statement. Then, consider some of the following questions as you reflect upon the road so far. If you want to, explain a little bit about your process. What have you experienced so far in writing your paper? Was it difficult or fairly easy to come up with your design? Do you feel confident about your progress so far? How do you feel about your thesis statement? What would you like to do in revisions? What step seems the most difficult or the easiest for you?

Columbia Southern University

I’m working on a management exercise and need a sample draft to help me study.

In this practical exercise, you are hypothetically employed as the IT Department Manager at an imaginary Fixed Base Operator (FBO) located in Somewhere, Kansas. You have been tasked to create a simple spreadsheet utilizing the Microsoft Excel application that will be the primary component of a Decision Support System (DSS).

The DSS spreadsheet will be utilized by the corporate Finance Department Manager to reach structured decisions relating to aviation fuel purchasing contracts. To be able to arrive at those decisions, the manager needs data that represents the pricing for two distinct types of aviation fuel, Jet Fuel, and AVgas, that is available from the five different vendors with which the company has accounts. The DSS should present the lowest pricing in U.S. dollars for each of the two types of aviation fuel along with the vendors that offer that pricing.

The following are the dashboard requirements:

  • Submit the DSS in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.
  • Submit two “MIN” and two “IF” functions.
  • Format cells with TWO decimal places.
  • Format the spreadsheet per the steps below.
  • In Row 1, create a header row with the following labels in bold font:
    • Column A: Vendor Name
    • Column B: Jet Fuel Price
    • Column C: Avgas Price

    In Column A, Rows 2 through 6, list the following vendors in non-bold font:

    • Yellow Plains Fuel
    • Okie Stokie Fuel
    • Best Ever Fuel
    • Smith Bros Fuel
    • Wild West Fuel

    In Columns B and C, Rows 2 through 6, enter imaginary pricing values for all vendors and both types of fuel, keeping the range of values between $5.00 and $10.00 for each type of fuel. The numerical values for each type of fuel must be different. Format the cells in Columns B and C, Rows 2 through 6 as Currency with TWO decimal places.

    • Label the cell in Column A, Row 8, “Best Jet Fuel Price” in bold font.
    • Label the cell in Column A, Row 9, “Jet Fuel Vendor” in bold font.
    • Label the cell in Column A, Row 11, “Best Avgas Price” in bold font.
    • Label the cell in Column A, Row 12, “Avgas Vendor” in bold font.

    Using Functions and Formulas

    1. Using the MIN function, create a formula for the cell located in Column B, Row 8 that calculates the lowest value for the Jet Fuel pricing available from the five vendors.
    2. Using the MIN function, create a formula for the cell located in Column C, Row 11 that calculates the lowest value for the Avgas pricing available from the five vendors.
    3. Using nested IF functions, create a formula for the cell in Column B, Row 9 that places the name of the vendor determined to have the “Best Jet Fuel Price.”
    4. Select Align Right for the data in the cell located at Column B, Row 9.
    5. Using nested IF functions, create a formula for the cell in Column C. Row 12 that places the name of the vendor determined to have the “Best Avgas Price.”
    6. Select Align Right for the data in the cell located at Column C, Row 12.
    7. Select All Borders for the cells in Columns A, B, and C, Rows 1 through 12.

Columbia Southern University

Instructions
Cookie Creations (Chapters 9 and 10)

This assignment will focus on the Cookie Creations case study from Chapter 9 (page 9-37) and Chapter 10 (page 10-42) of your textbook. There are two parts to this assignment. Review the case situations for each part (i.e., in each chapter), and then complete the instructions.

Part I

One of Natalie’s friends, Curtis Lesperance, runs a coffee shop where he sells specialty coffees and prepares and sells muffins and cookies. He is eager to buy one of Natalie’s fine European mixers, which would enable him to make larger batches of muffins and cookies. However, Curtis cannot afford to pay for the mixer for at least 30 days. He asks Natalie if she would be willing to sell him the mixer on credit.

Natalie comes to you for advice. She asks you to address the questions below.

  1. Curtis has given me a set of his most recent financial statements. What calculations should I do with the data from these statements, and what questions should I ask him after I have analyzed the statements? How will this information help me decide if I should extend credit to Curtis?
  2. Is there an alternative other than extending credit to Curtis for 30 days?
  3. I am thinking seriously about being able to have my customers use credit cards. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of letting my customers pay by credit card?

The following transactions occurred in June through August 2020.

June 1: After much thought, Natalie sells a mixer to Curtis on credit, terms n/30, for $1,150 (cost of mixer $620).

June 30:  Curtis calls Natalie. He is unable to pay the amount outstanding for another month, so he signs a 1-month, 8.35% note receivable.

July 31: Curtis calls Natalie. He indicates that he is unable to pay today but hopes to have a check for her at the end of the week. Natalie prepares the journal entry to record the dishonor of the note. She assumes she will be paid within a week.

Aug. 7: Natalie receives a check from Curtis in payment of his balance owed.

Instructions:

  • Answer Natalie’s questions in a Word document.
  • Prepare journal entries for the transactions that occurred in June, July, and August in an Excel spreadsheet. Round to the nearest dollar. Note that the company uses a perpetual inventory system. Use the Part I Excel Template to record your transactions.

To reiterate, you will write your responses to Natalie’s questions (1–3) in a Word document, and you will complete the journal transactions in an Excel spreadsheet. Your responses to Part I (Natalie’s questions) should be a minimum of one page in length, and you will add your responses for Part II to this document before submitting.

Part II

Natalie is also thinking of buying a van that will be used only for business. The cost of the van is estimated at $36,500. Natalie would spend an additional $2,500 to have the van painted. In addition, she wants the back seat of the van removed so that she will have a lot of room to transport her mixer inventory as well as her baking supplies. The cost of taking out the back seat and installing shelving units is estimated at $1,500. She expects the van to last 5 years, and she expects to drive it for 200,000 miles. The annual cost of vehicle insurance will be $2,400. Natalie estimates that at the end of the 5-year useful life, the van will sell for $7,500. Assume that she will buy the van on August 15, 2020, and it will be ready for use on September 1, 2020.

Natalie is concerned about the impact of the van’s cost on her income statement and balance sheet. She has come to you for advice on calculating the van’s depreciation.

Instructions:

  1. Determine the cost of the van.
  2. Prepare three depreciation tables for 2020, 2021, and 2022: one for straight-line depreciation (similar to the one in Illustration 10-9), one for double-declining balance depreciation (Illustration 10-13), and one for units-of-activity depreciation (Illustration 10-11). Use the Part II Excel Template to determine depreciation. For units-of-activity, Natalie estimates that she will drive the van as follows: 15,000 miles in 2020; 45,000 miles in 2021; and 50,000 miles in 2022. Recall that Cookie Creations has a December 31 year-end.
  3. What impact will the three methods of depreciation have on Natalie’s balance sheet at December 31, 2020? What impact will the three methods have on Natalie’s income statement in 2020?
  4. What impact will the three methods of depreciation have on Natalie’s income statement over the van’s total 5-year useful life?
  5. What method of depreciation would you recommend Natalie use, and why?

Use the same Word document that you used to record your Part I responses (one page in length), and add your responses for the Part II questions (1–5), which should be one page in length.

In summary, you will submit one Word document containing your responses for Parts I and II (two-page minimum) and two Excel spreadsheets containing Natalie’s journal transactions from Part I and the depreciation tables from Part II. You will upload a total of three files to Blackboard (one Word document and two Excel spreadsheets).

Columbia Southern University

Instructions

For this essay, you will attend a city council, county council, or commission meeting (or a meeting hosted by a similar government agency or group). You will then provide an analysis of the meeting and determine whether you agreed with the steps and actions taken by the council or commission. You will need to explain why you agreed or disagreed.

For students unable to attend in person, viewing a meeting online is an acceptable substitute. The name of the council or commission, location, date, and web address (if applicable) must be included on your title page. Your essay must be at least two full pages in length. You must include a copy of the official meeting agenda as your supporting documentation.

Be sure to include the following information in your essay.

  • Include an introduction with a topic sentence at the end of your first paragraph. Example: “The following items from the (fill in the blank) meeting will be analyzed:” and then list each item. These items will then serve as your headers:
    • agenda items,
    • items that required a vote and the outcome of those votes,
    • any contentious issues and analysis of the problem, and
    • any items of particular interest.

Address the questions below in your essay.

  • Which people in leadership roles and positions were present and participated in the meeting?
  • What community services were addressed in the meeting? In what ways did the council or commission discuss these services?
  • Was the meeting what you expected? Would you have voted with the majority? Elaborate on your response.
  • How do you think voter participation (i.e., votes that elected the officials to the council or commission) played a role in the meeting?
  • When watching the meeting, what community power (e.g., pluralistic, elite) model do you see?

Academic sources should be used, including the textbook, and must be referenced in proper APA Style. The minutes of the meeting should be used as a source.

Columbia Southern University

Question #1 Unit 3

If you were to work for an elected official, would you prefer to work in a smaller group that is more hands-on, grassroots, and collaborative, or would you rather work in a large, bustling atmosphere of professional politics and consultants? Which do you think would produce better results in making policy and laws? Review the pros and cons of both types of organizations. Use examples to support your opinion, and be sure to pick a side.

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words in length. No references or citations are necessary.

Question #2 Unit 4

What do you think are the three most important qualities or skills a governor needs to possess in order to be successful in that position? Explain why you feel they are the most important. Would these qualities be enough for you to vote against your political ideology or identification? Use facts to support your opinion.

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words in length. No references or citations are necessary.

Question #3 Unit 5

Explain the pros and cons of the two major ways judges are selected at the state level. Indicate how judges are selected in your state, and analyze if this method works or if changes should be made on judge selection in your state.

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words in length. No references or citations are necessary.

Question #4 Unit 6

Review the main types of local governments, specifically city and county governments. How are they similar and different? If you could decide in your local community, what type of government structure would you want? Why?

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words in length. No references or citations are necessary.

Question #5 Unit 7

List and describe the various forms of taxes levied by local, state and federal governments. What type of taxing system do you think is most fair to citizens, and why?

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words in length. No references or citations are necessary.

Question #6 Unit 8

How can you apply what you learned in this course to your career or life success?

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words in length. No references or citations are necessary

Columbia Southern University

Respond to at least two of your classmates. Each response should:

  • Be at least 150 words; must include more than one’s agreement or disagreement with another student’s post.
  • Be reacting to classmate’s post and demonstrate higher order thinking (challenge, connect, suggest, question, or expand the post of peers).
  • Use proper spelling, grammar, and punctuation.See Below
  • Karen Leithead Aug 10, 2021Aug 10 at 9:36pmManage Discussion Entry

    When it comes to negotiations you want to make sure you include the following preparation, discussion, clarification of goals, getting to the win-win outcome, agreement and implementation of course of action.Preparation is a key part of negotiations. Making sure that you obtain al of the important facts of what you are bidding on This gives your company the opportunity to meet and discuss who will be involved. Discussions are where you are able to open for any questions that you might have to make sure both parties are aware of what is expected. After the discussion you want to clarify the goals. This can help prevent any misunderstandings. Getting to the win-win is where you are able to have both parties feel like they are both getting something positive. Agreement that gives both sides interests achieved. The final part is the implementation of what course will be implemented. This part is making sure that parties are able to get put everything into action.In my current position I have been involved with working to make sure that the customers understand the benefit of coming to my company. Pointing out key factors about what we offer. One thing I think is important is having the correct information at that point to share the knowledge with them.When it comes to contract negotiation for government contracts and the most equitable resolution is met I think there is an advantage of how the contractor can have the ability to justify the elements of the contract. This can give the bidder a better competitive edge to negotiate.From this weeks’ reading I was able to develop I deeper understanding of the similarities and differences with Construction Contracts versus Supply Contracts. Construction Contracts are more out in the open where they can be monitored versus a supply contractor who would be using their own facilities.

  • Kaitlyn House Aug 12, 2021Aug 12 at 5:44pmManage Discussion Entry

    The negotiation process starts off with tailoring your team to the situation and identifying all negotiation objectives. Preparation is the key to effective negotiation. Preparation allows for closer cost estimates and stronger technical performance (due to requirements being well outlined & defined). In the beginning of the negotiation process, the contractor needs to be sure that they fully understand the contract requirements prior to preparation. Next, they need to establish an effective estimating system that meets contractor & government requirements. The contractor will also need to identify the assumptions they are making in order to price their proposal, such as market conditions. After that, the contractor will develop a proposal that meets the government’s technical and pricing requirements.The government must also prepare for the negation process. They need to conduct market research to understand the factors that could affect contractor performance. They also need to review all contract documents (such as the solicitation & contract) and the contractor’s proposal. They will then develop a negotiation plan based off their analysis. The contractor and government will then negotiate towards a win-win outcome and implement a course of action. Some approaches to resolving unproductive negotiations are to find shared interests/goals and to set objectives together to determine the best alternative to the negotiated agreement. I think that finding common ground is the key to getting anywhere when negotiations become unproductive.Contract negotiation is best used to secure an equitable resolution of differences in the government-contractor transactional relationship by providing both sides with benefits through a fair and equitable deal. Having a beneficial contract between both parties will provide a great foundation to the government-contractor relationship. Both parties need to be able to recognize & understand each other’s priorities, needs vs. wants, constraints, and liabilities to resolve any differences to come to an agreement.Negotiation is an important topic from this week’s material that will benefit me professionally because I am getting more involved in the negotiation process when my company is writing up engineering change proposals and determining profit with the government. The more familiarity I get in this area, the more comfortable I will feel in the conference rooms during negotiation!

Columbia Southern University

Ted Brown and Jim Green have been discussing going into business together for several months, and they are anxious to start that business before the end of this month. However, both Ted Brown and Jim Green each have to be out of town for several weeks on other business, so Ted Brown has told his son, Theodore, who is 16, about the discussions with Jim Green and has appointed Theodore to complete negotiation of the final details of the business. Jim Green has told his son James, who is 18 years old, about the discussions with Ted Brown and appointed James to complete the negotiations.

The business that Ted Brown and Jim Green want to create will develop an app for cell phones that will identify family-oriented attractions along major highways so families can download the app to help in planning family vacations. The development of the app will take 4 months, and then it will take approximately another 4 months to fully deploy the app. As the app becomes popular, the business will solicit family-oriented businesses to advertise on the app. Ted Brown and Jim Green have very little capital to use in the development and deployment of the app and will probably need to raise the capital necessary to develop and deploy a quality app.

In your case study, address the questions below. 

  • Can Theodore Brown and James Green legally create the business that Ted Brown and Jim Green have been discussing? Why, or why not? 
  • If Theodore and James do create the business, what duties do they each owe their father? Describe what those duties mean in this case.
  • What factors do Ted Brown and Jim Green (or their sons on their behalf) need to consider in selecting a form for this business?
  • What form of business will provide the most advantage for their venture?
  • What are the disadvantages of the form of business that they selected?

Your case study should be at least four pages in length and include at least two outside sources, one of which must come from the CSU Online Library. Be sure to use APA formatting for all citations and references. Please note that no abstract is needed.

To assist in locating articles in the library, you are encouraged to review the document Finding Articles: A Quick Start Guide and The Research Process of Information Literacy LibGuide.

Columbia Southern University

Reply to each person

Neysa Woods

In my opinion Larry is not owed anything from John in the present moment, Larry’s request is unconscionable. John acted in good faith, he executed all parts of their agreement which was to provide a kitchen table and chairs. Larry inspected the used merchandise and accepted the offer. UCC 2-306(2) states- “A lawful agreement (Links to an external site.) by either the seller (Links to an external site.) or the buyer (Links to an external site.) for exclusive dealing in the kind of goods (Links to an external site.) concerned imposes unless otherwise agreed an obligation by the seller to use best efforts to supply the goods and by the buyer to use best efforts to promote their sale (Links to an external site.).” Nothing is written nor established in regard to the delivery or pickup of the furniture. There were no additional negotiations of terms once the exchange of payment occurred.

Once the fire occurred- John’s insolvent UCC 1-201(23) by being unable to pay his debt to Larry. John’s refusal to refund his money is not out of malice but shear unconsciousness. The mans home has been obliterated during a quick moment of borrowing a vehicle, to remove the furniture from is property.

Now to Larry’s defense- due to expectation damages Promissory Estoppel can be brought into action. “Promissory estoppel refers to the doctrine (Links to an external site.)that a party (Links to an external site.)may recover on the basis of a promise made when the party’s reliance (Links to an external site.)on that promise was reasonable (Links to an external site.), and the party attempting to recover (Links to an external site.) detrimentally relied (Links to an external site.)on the promise.” Once the fire occurred. John should’ve assured Larry some type of restitution. Not the same day of the fire but some sort of payment remedy within a reasonable time frame.

Rohwer, C. D., Skrocki, A. M., & Malloy, M. P. (2017). Contracts in a nutshell (8th ed.). St. Paul (Minn.): West academic publishing.

Andrew Yancey

According to the UCC “A contract for the sale of goods may be made in any manner sufficient to show agreement, including conduct by both parties which recognizes the existence of such a contract” (UCC 2-204 (1)). Also, the UCC states that “an agreement sufficient to constitute a contract for a sale may be found even though the moment of its making is undetermined” (UCC-204 (2). Given this precedent set in the UCC, I don’t believe Larry has grounds to demand a refund given the original stipulations of the sale of the goods.

Because Larry left the furniture overnight and there were no agreements set in stone regarding the transportation of the goods then Larry will have to deal with the consequences of leaving his property there given the unfortunate circumstances. Although, I do believe that given the unforeseen circumstances John should refund the money.

The UCC states “the buyer is relying on the sellers’ skill or judgment to select or furnish suitable goods” (UCC 2-315). This covers the Implied Warranty: Fitness for Particular Purpose but this warranty doesn’t apply to unforeseen circumstances ie. A house burning down. Because there is no agreement to store such goods after the sale was processed there is no reasonable expectation that John has any additional responsibility to ensure the safekeeping of the sold items within his household. Under the UCC there should be additional terms in acceptance or confirmation in order to cover unforeseen circumstances such as this. I am hopeful that under these circumstances that John would refund the money to Larry but legally I believe Larry has no grounds to pursue legal action if refused a refund.

Works Cited

https://www.law.cornell.edu/ucc

Columbia Southern University

Communications and Control

In this unit, you are required to complete the following sections: Communications Management and Tracking and Status Updates. Refer to your unit lesson (from this unit and last unit) and required unit resources to advance your project plan. For this unit, create the sections listed below.

  1. Communications Management: Identify all critical communications channels for project stakeholders, frequency of communications, types of information to be communicated, and the project status-tracking plan. Where appropriate, include electronic media used for collaborative purposes (e.g., Google Docs, Yammer, and Facebook). Also, in cases of geographically dispersed project teams, indicate methods for regular communications. Please review the discussion from Chapter 6 on team communication methods. An example of a communications management protocol is shown on p. 541 of your textbook.
  2. Tracking and Status Updates: Indicate the methods the project team will use to regularly update the project status, including methods for tracking project progress, and identify which organizational stakeholders receive notification of the project status.
    • 7.1 Tracking Method: Show the method used to track project status (e.g., S-curve, earned value, milestones). Indicate the regularity of these assessments (i.e., monthly, as needed, or upon completion of major deliverables). For earned value assessments, indicate how you will provide updated cost performance index (CPI) and schedule performance index (SPI) data. See p. 542 of your textbook.
    • 7.2 Notification Record: Provide a record of project status update communications. Indicate who received project updates, and show sign-off by key stakeholders upon their receipt of status updates.
    • 7.3 Control Systems: Indicate the forms of project control to be used for the project, including configuration control, design control, quality control, document control, and trend monitoring. Develop control documentation for each form of control you intend to use, including a list of key organizational stakeholders who will be copied on all control documents and status updates.

This assignment should be a minimum of two pages in length, not counting the title page and reference page. Be sure to use proper APA formatting

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I’m working on a management case study and need support to help me study.

Cookie Creations (Chapter 13)

This assignment is a continuation of the Cookie Creations case study. From the information gathered in the previous chapters, read the continuation of the Cookie Creations case study in Chapter 13 on page 13-32 of the textbook. The case study allows you to apply what you have learned about corporations and stocks from the unit lesson and required unit resources.

Natalie’s friend Curtis Lesperance decides to meet with Natalie after hearing that her discussions about a possible business partnership with her friend Katy Peterson have failed. Natalie had decided that forming a partnership with Katy, a high school friend, would hurt their friendship. Natalie had also concluded that she and Katy were not compatible to operate a business venture together.

Because Natalie has been so successful with Cookie Creations and Curtis has been just as successful with his coffee shop, they both conclude that they could benefit from each other’s business expertise. Curtis and Natalie next evaluate the different types of business organization. Because of the advantage of limited personal liability, they decide to form a corporation.

Curtis has operated his coffee shop for 2 years. He buys coffee, muffins, and cookies from a local supplier. Natalie’s business consists of giving cookie-making classes and selling fine European mixers. The plan is for Natalie to use the premises that Curtis currently rents to give her cooking-making classes and demonstrations of the mixers that she sells. Natalie will also hire, train, and supervise staff to bake the cookies and muffins sold in the coffee shop. By offering her classes on the premises, Natalie will save on travel time going from one place to another. Another advantage is that the coffee shop will have one central location for selling the mixers.

The current market values of the assets of both businesses are listed below.

Curtis’s CoffeeCookie CreationsCash$7,130$12,000Accounts receivable100800Inventory4501,200Equipment2,5001,000*

*Cookie Creations decided not to buy the delivery van considered in Unit II.

Combining forces will also allow Natalie and Curtis to pool their resources and buy a few more assets to run their new business venture.

Curtis and Natalie then meet with a lawyer and form a corporation on November 1, 2020, called Cookie& Coffee Creations Inc. The articles of incorporation state that there will be two classes of shares that the corporation is authorized to issue: common shares and preferred shares. They authorize 100,000 no-par shares of common stock and 10,000 no-par shares of preferred stock with a $0.50 noncumulative dividend.

The assets held by each of their sole proprietorships will be transferred into the corporation at current market value. Curtis will receive 10,180 common shares, and Natalie will receive 15,000 common shares in the corporation. Therefore, the shares have a fair value of $1 per share.

Natalie and Curtis are very excited about this new business venture, so they have come to you with the questions below.

  1. Curtis’s dad and Natalie’s grandmother are interested in investing $5,000 each in the business venture. We are thinking of issuing them preferred shares. What would be the advantage of issuing them preferred shares instead of common shares?
  2. Our lawyer has sent us a bill for $750. When we discussed the bill with her, she indicated that she would be willing to receive common shares in our new corporation instead of cash for her services. We would be happy to issue her shares, but we are a bit worried about accounting for this transaction. Can we do this? If so, how do we determine how many shares to give her?

Instructions:

  1. In a Word document, answer the questions posed by Natalie and Curtis above.
  2. In an Excel spreadsheet, prepare the journal entries required on November 1, 2020, the date when Natalie and Curtis transfer the assets of their respective businesses into Cookie & Coffee Creations Inc.
  3. Assume that Cookie & Coffee Creations Inc. issues 1,000 $0.50 noncumulative preferred shares to Curtis’s dad and the same number to Natalie’s grandmother—in both cases for $5,000. Also assume that Cookie & Coffee Creations Inc. issues 750 common shares to its lawyer.
  4. Prepare the journal entries for each of these transactions. They all occurred on November 1. Prepare the opening balance sheet for Cookie & Coffee Creations Inc. as of November 1, 2020, including the journal entries in (b) and (c) above.

Provide your responses to Natalie and Curtis’s two questions in a Word document, which should be a minimum of one page in length. Complete the accounting for items b–d in one Excel spreadsheet; you may use multiple tabs to organize your response. In summary, you will submit one Word document containing item a and one Excel spreadsheet containing items b–d. 

Columbia Southern University

QUESTION 1

  1. Employees in the paint department of an automotive parts production facility use styrene to clean residue off the parts as they come off the paint line. The OSHA PEL for styrene is 100 ppm as an 8-hour TWA exposure. Personal air samples show that during peak production times, exposures range from 150 ppm to 200 ppm for an 8-hour shift. The parts cleaning is performed in a small room with one door.

    Using OSHA’s Hierarchy of Controls, write one paragraph for the hazard scenario above that summarizes your approach to reducing the risks associated with the hazard. Indicate which type of hazard control you will use, and describe exactly how it will be used to control the hazard.

    Your response must be at least 200 words in length. QUESTION 2

    1. A plant has an operation that produces automotive headliners in a press. The process uses a compound that contains methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI). The compound containing MDI must be used in the production process to meet the client’s specifications for the headliner. The OSHA PEL for MDI is 0.02 ppm as a ceiling concentration. Personal air samples collected for 15 minutes at the time when the press opens show that short-term exposures range from 0.02 ppm to 0.06 ppm.

      Using OSHA’s Hierarchy of Controls, write one paragraph for the hazard scenario above that summarizes your approach to reducing the risks associated with the hazard. Indicate which type of hazard control you will use, and describe exactly how it will be used to control the hazard.

      Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

    2. QUESTION 3
    3. A press area of a plant has six 400-ton presses in operation 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Personal monitoring using noise dosimeters has shown that 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposures range from 92.0 dBA to 94.5 dBA.

      Using OSHA’s Hierarchy of Controls, write a hazard scenario using the information above that summarizes your approach to reducing the risks associated with the hazard. Indicate which type of hazard control you will use, and describe exactly how it will be used to control the hazard.

      Your response must be at least 200 words in length.QUESTION 4

      1. A plant that manufactures automobile chassis includes a production area containing 100 robotic welding stations. An adjacent area contains 10 welding booths where employees perform hand welding using MIG welders to rework welds that have been identified as unacceptable. Personal air sampling shows that personal exposures at 5 of the welding booths located in the middle of the rework exceed the OSHA PEL for lead, nickel, and iron oxide fumes. On average, the personal exposures exceed the applicable OSHA PEL by 2-3 times.

        Using OSHA’s Hierarchy of Controls, write one paragraph for the hazard scenario above that summarizes your approach to reducing the risks associated with the hazard. Indicate which type of hazard control you will use, and describe exactly how it will be used to control the hazard.

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QUESTION 1

  1. A manufacturing facility that makes steel materials handling devices such as hand carts and an assortment of roller carts for moving heavy materials around in manufacturing facilities has decided to start making cantilever storage racking systems. This will require the purchase and installation of a 12-foot hydraulic press brake and a 12-foot shear in the fabrication department along with the necessary tools and dies to bend and punch holes in the rack components that will largely be manufactured from formed sheet metal. Employees have experience working smaller versions of this type of equipment, but room will need to be made and larger pieces of sheet metal will need to be cut and handled. The department will also need to continue to produce existing orders while the new equipment is installed. How can a management of change program be used to reduce risks in such a scenario?

    Your response must be at least 75 words in length. QUESTION 2

    1. Your organization, a company that manufactures fitness equipment such as treadmills and elliptical machines, is about to introduce lean concepts into its operations in order to be more competitive with foreign manufacturers. The foreman from the assembly department, however, does not think that his employees have the time to be involved with the lean initiative. Provide a convincing argument about why it is important for the assembly line workers to play a part.

      Your response must be at least 75 words in length.

    2. QUESTION 3
    3. Your purchasing department does not want to buy adjustable hydraulic pallet stands for the filter assembly line at a company that makes oil filters for cars and trucks. They state that the current process works just fine and that expensive, adjustable stands are not required in the Occupational Health and Safety Administration standards. The production employees in the facility are largely female and many have worked at the facility for decades. The current process for accessing filter parts entails having assemblers bend over to pick up arm loads of the various filter components from a pallet or bin and placing them on a table beside their respective workstations. The parts are assembled and pressed into place, and the completed product placed in a separate bin. Please provide a risk-based argument as to why the adjustable pallet stands would be the better choice.

Columbia Southern University

Unit II Course Project

  •  
Instructions
Starting Your Project Plan

In Unit I, you were required to develop and submit a project idea. Your instructor should have provided you with either the okay to proceed with your idea or some feedback so that you can make changes. Once you have this feedback, you will be able to make any needed modifications to your project idea, and then you may start putting together your project plan.

Also in Unit I, you were provided with an outline for your final project plan. For the assignment in this unit, refer to your unit lesson and required unit resources to begin to draft your project plan, which should include the components listed below.

  1. Project Overview: This section should include a brief background description of the project, including motivation, goals and objectives, success criteria, major project deliverables, and identified constraints.
    • 1.1 Purpose, Scope and Objectives, and Business Case (In these sections, be sure to include how you will measure project success.)
      • 1.1.1 Scope: The project scope may be described in general terms. Include a problem statement, detailed steps in requirements gathering, information gathering, project constraints, alternatives analysis, and business case documentation. Be sure to describe the techniques used to derive the requirements for this project.
      • 1.1.2 Statement of Work (SOW): Include key milestones, resource requirements, risks and concerns, and acceptance criteria.
      • 1.1.3 Business Case: Include the business needs to be satisfied, the feasibility of the project, a description of internal and external forces likely to affect the project, a comparative analysis of the costs and benefits of this project over alternative solutions, and time estimates to return on investment. Identify how the satisfaction of business needs will be determined.
    • 1.2 Project Deliverables: List the major items or project features to be delivered to the client.
    • 1.3 Project Organization: List all project team members, their specific roles, and the project organization hierarchy. Where appropriate, indicate joint responsibilities between the project manager and functional manager. Develop a project team reporting structure.

 

Columbia Southern University

I’m working on a business law case study and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

HARDY COMPANY

The Hardy Company manufactures small electrical appliances, including electric shavers, electric
mixers, blenders, and irons for the home. The company had recently introduced a new line of
electric shavers for women. In the product design stage of the new product, the sales department
had conducted an extensive marketing research survey to determine exactly what style-color
combinations best suited the market for this new product. The style finally selected was an
extremely modish plastic case with an entirely new shape of cutting head.

Unfortunately, no commercially available fractional horsepower motor could be fitted
into the desired style of case. It was, therefore, necessary to have a supplier develop the required
motor.

The vice president of supply management of the Hardy Company, Mr. Monaghan,
discussed the problem with the sales representatives of several of Hardy’s best motor suppliers.
One of the persons contacted was the sales vice president of the Centennial Electric Company,
which had been one of Hardy’s suppliers for years and was known to have one of the best
developmental groups in the small motor field. In his conversation with Mr. Monaghan, the
Centennial Electric vice president expressed confidence that his firm could do the job, and he
even roughed out a proposed method of attacking the problem.

Mr. Monaghan and the engineering manager were so impressed by the approach of the
Centennial Company, as compared to presentations of the other companies contacted, that it was
decided to award the development work to Centennial. In setting up the contract for this
development work, it was discovered that the Centennial Electric Company had a rigid policy of
billing separately for developmental services only on government contracts. For all other work,
the Company recovered development costs through sale of the motors developed. Consequently,
the shaver motor was developed by Centennial on a “no charge” basis simultaneously with the
product design work at Hardy. Centennial was very cooperative and made several modifications
to the original design specifications. Finally, ten handmade motors of the final design passed
rigorous quality control checks by Hardy engineers. These motors were also provided on a “no
charge” basis.

A purchase contract was then placed with Centennial Electric for the first production run
of 100,000 units. The price of the motors was slightly above the price of a standard motor of
equivalent horsepower ratings, but Mr. Monaghan felt that the differential was certainly not
enough for Centennial to recover the entire development cost over the run of 100,000. He knew
that Centennial had also made a sizable additional investment in special tools, dies, and fixtures
for this motor.

The shaver was a great success and another 100,000 units were produced in the first year.
Centennial had been given the order for these motors on a proprietary basis when it quoted a price
equal to the price of standard motors of the same horsepower rating. A blanket order of 150,000
units for the second year’s production was also awarded to Centennial without competitive bids.

When the contract for the third year’s production was being considered, sales
representatives of four different companies requested the right to bid on motors for the shaver.
One salesman was very indignant and said that his company had been discriminated against all
along and that he knew that his company could make a better motor for the job and sell it for less
than Centennial’s price. Although Mr. Monaghan felt that Centennial had done an excellent
development job and was providing good service on the contract, he wondered how long he
should allow Centennial to have this business on a proprietary basis. He was certain Centennial’s
price was not substantially out of line, but he was not at all certain that Centennial had recovered
all of its investment in development, tools, dies, and fixtures.

Do you feel that the buying of this motor was properly handled? How would you
have handled it?

Should the Hardy Company have solicited competitive bids on this item?

What would you do if you were in Mr. Monaghan’s position now?

Columbia Southern University

Microsoft Case Study

Case studies are an essential learning strategy in business classes as they provide an opportunity for you to critically analyze events that have taken place in real-life businesses. This develops your critical thinking and research skills as you research the competition and industry in which your business resides in order to formulate a recommendation for the challenges faced by the company.

For this unit, review the “Marketing Excellence: Microsoft” case study on pp. 94–95 of your textbook. This assignment will be comprised of two parts; one part will ask you to respond to questions, and the other will require you to complete a case analysis. 

Part 1

Evaluate this case and respond to each of the following questions using both theory and practical managerial thinking. 

  • Evaluate Microsoft’s product and marketing evolution over the years. What has the company done well, and where did it falter?
  • Evaluate Microsoft’s recent expansion into areas such as search engines and smartphones. Do you think these are good areas of growth for Microsoft? Why, or why not?
  • Review the potential ethical implications of Microsoft’s situation. How might they revise their strategies to align with good ethical practices?

Your Part 1 response must be at least two pages in length. Follow APA Style when creating citations and references for this assignment. Note that you will submit Part 1 and Part 2 in one document.

Part 2

Complete a case analysis of Microsoft. This requires that you conduct research on Microsoft beyond the case study material in the textbook. In the case analysis, you will look at the situational analysis, problem, and alternatives, and you will provide a recommendation. Refer to the instructions below as you construct your analysis.

  • Situational Analysis 
    • Discuss the external environment through the compilation of a PEST (political, economic, sociocultural, and technology) analysis.
    • Discuss the internal and external environment through the compilation of a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis.
  • Problem
    • Identify at least one organizational problem that Microsoft is currently having or one that you project it will have in the future. Base this on your research and critical thinking.
  • Alternatives 
    • Compile three or four potential marketing-related solutions to the problem above. Remember that these are potential alternatives; you will not select all of the alternatives to solve the problem.
  • Recommendation (Marketing Strategy) 
    • Select one or two of the alternatives above to solve the problem that you identified in this case analysis. 
    • Discuss your rationale for choosing these and not the others. Include supporting research that will increase the depth of your analysis.

In order to successfully complete Part 2 of this case study, you need to review the video and task learning guides (TLGs) below. The following resources will provide you with the skills to research industries/competitors. 

Company and Industry Research video (transcript for Company and Industry Research video)
How to Find Company Information in the Business Source Ultimate Database TLG
How to Search for Articles With a Company Focus TLG

Columbia Southern University

Read “The Risk Management Department” case on pages 641–642 of your textbook. As you complete the analysis, address the topics below in your case analysis.

  1. Financial risk, strategic risk, operational-technical risk, and operational-safety risk represent project risk sources within an organization. Discuss each from a theoretical aspect.
  2. Evaluate which of the sources/risks above with which Cooper Manufacturing is involved. Explain the amount of risk associated with each.
  3. Explain scheduling techniques that Cooper Manufacturing might use to mitigate its risks.
  4. Explain specific tasks that Cooper Manufacturing should use to manage its project risks.

In formatting your case analysis, do not use the question-and-answer format; instead, use an essay format with subheadings. Your APA-formatted case study should be a minimum of two full pages in length (not counting the title and reference pages). You are required to use a minimum of three academic sources that are no more than 5 years old (one may be your textbook). All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased material must have accompanying in-text citations. A minimum of three in-text citations are required.

Resources

THE RISK MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT

Background

In 1946, shortly after the end of World War II, Cooper Manufacturing Company was created. The company manufactured small appliances for the home. By 2010, Cooper Manufacturing had more than thirty manufacturing plants, all located in the United States. The business now included both small and large household appliances. Almost all of its growth came from acquisitions that were paid for out of cash flow and borrowing from the financial markets.

Cooper’s strategic plan called for global expansion beginning in 2003. With this in mind and with large financial reserves, Cooper planned on acquiring five to six companies a year. This would be in addition to whatever domestic acquisitions were also available. Almost all of the acquisitions were manufacturing companies that produced products related to the household marketplace. However, some of the acquisitions included air conditioning and furnace companies as well as home security systems.

Risk Management Department

During the 1980s, when Cooper Manufacturing began its rapid acquisition approach, it established a Risk Management Department. The Risk Management Department reported to the chief financial officer (CFO) and was considered to be part of the financial discipline of the company. The overall objective of the Risk Management Department was to coordinate the protection of the company’s assets. The primary means by which this was done was through the implementation of loss prevention programs. The department worked very closely with other internal departments such as Environmental Health and Safety. Outside consultants were brought in as necessary to support these activities.

One method employed by the company to ensure the entire company’s cooperation and involvement in the risk management process was to hold each manufacturing division responsible for any specific losses up to a designated self-insured retention level. If there was a significant loss, the division must absorb the loss and its impact on the division’s bottom-line profit margin. This directly involved the division in both loss prevention and claims management. When a claim did occur, the Risk Management Department maintained regular contact with the division’s personnel to establish protocol on the claim and cash reserves and ultimate disposition.

As part of risk management, the company purchased insurance above the designated retention levels. The insurance premiums were allocated to each division. The premiums were calculated based upon sales volume and claims loss history, with the most significant percentage being allocated against claims loss history.

Risk management was considered an integral part of the due diligence process for acquisitions and divestitures. It began at the onset of the process rather than at the end and resulted in a written report and presentation to the senior levels of management.

A New Risk Materializes

The original intent of the Risk Management Department was to protect the company’s assets, especially from claims and lawsuits. The department focused heavily upon financial and business risks with often little regard for human assets. All of this was about to change.

The majority of Cooper’s manufacturing processes were labor-intensive assembly line processes. Although Cooper modernized the plants with new equipment to support the assembly lines with hope of speeding up the work, the processes were still heavily labor intensive.

Ergonomics in the Workplace

Ergonomics includes the fundamentals for the flexible workplace variability and compatibility with desk components that flex from individual work activities to team settings. Workstations provide supportive ergonomics for task-intensive environments. Outside the discipline, the term “ergonomics” is generally used to refer to physical ergonomics as it relates to the workplace (as in, e.g., ergonomic chairs and keyboards). Ergonomics in the workplace has to do largely with the safety of employees, both long and short term. Ergonomics can help reduce costs by improving safety. This would decrease the money paid out in workers’ compensation. For example, over five million workers sustain overextension injuries per year. Through ergonomics, workplaces can be designed so that workers do not have to overextend themselves and the manufacturing industry could save billions in workers’ compensation. Workplaces may either take the reactive or proactive approach when applying ergonomics practices. Reactive ergonomics is when something needs to be fixed and corrective action is taken. Proactive ergonomics is the process of seeking areas that could be improved and fixing the issues before they become a large problem. Problems may be fixed through equipment design, task design, or environmental design. Equipment design changes the actual, physical devices used by people. Task design changes what people do with the equipment. Environmental design changes the environment in which people work but not the physical equipment they use.

QUESTIONS

  1. Was the original intent of creating the Risk Management Department correct in that it was designed to protect corporate assets? In other words, was this really risk management?
  2. Are the new responsibilities of the department, specifically ergonomics, a valid interpretation of risk management?
  3. Can the lowering of health care costs and workers’ compensation costs be considered as a project?
  4. How successful do you think Cooper was in lowering costs?

Notes

1. E. H. Conrow, “Some Long-Term Issues and Impediments Affecting Military Systems Acquisition Reform,” Acquisition Review Quarterly, Defense Acquisition University, vol. 2, no. 2 (Summer 1995): 199–212.2. This section is derived from Conrow, 2003, note 1, pp. 237–245. Copyright © 2003, Edmund H. Conrow. Used with permission of the author.3. See Conrow, 2003, note 1, pp. 258–268.4. Material discussing risk monitoring and control was derived in part from Risk Management Guide for DoD Acquisition, note 20, pp. 23–24.This chapter was updated by Dr. E. H. Conrow, CMC, CRM, PMP. Dr. Conrow has extensive experience in developing and implementing risk management on a wide variety of projects. He is a management and technical consultant who is the author of Effective Risk Management: Some Keys to Success, 2nd ed. (Washington, DC: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2003). He can be reached at (310) 374?7975 and www.risk-services.com. PMBOK is a registered mark of the Project Management Institute, Inc.PMBOK is a registered mark of the Project Management Institute, Inc.PMP and CAPM are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc.

Columbia Southern University

 Assignment

  • Unit II Case Study
    Instructions
    Cookie Creations (Chapters 9 and 10)
    This assignment will focus on the Cookie Creations case study from Chapter 9 (page 9-37) and Chapter 10 (page 10-42) of your textbook. There are two parts to this assignment. Review the case situations for each part (i.e., in each chapter), and then complete the instructions.Part I
    One of Natalie’s friends, Curtis Lesperance, runs a coffee shop where he sells specialty coffees and prepares and sells muffins and cookies. He is eager to buy one of Natalie’s fine European mixers, which would enable him to make larger batches of muffins and cookies. However, Curtis cannot afford to pay for the mixer for at least 30 days. He asks Natalie if she would be willing to sell him the mixer on credit.Natalie comes to you for advice. She asks you to address the questions below.

    1. Curtis has given me a set of his most recent financial statements. What calculations should I do with the data from these statements, and what questions should I ask him after I have analyzed the statements? How will this information help me decide if I should extend credit to Curtis?
    2. Is there an alternative other than extending credit to Curtis for 30 days?
    3. I am thinking seriously about being able to have my customers use credit cards. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of letting my customers pay by credit card?
    4. The following transactions occurred in June through August 2020.June 1: After much thought, Natalie sells a mixer to Curtis on credit, terms n/30, for $1,150 (cost of mixer $620).June 30:  Curtis calls Natalie. He is unable to pay the amount outstanding for another month, so he signs a 1-month, 8.35% note receivable.July 31: Curtis calls Natalie. He indicates that he is unable to pay today but hopes to have a check for her at the end of the week. Natalie prepares the journal entry to record the dishonor of the note. She assumes she will be paid within a week.Aug. 7: Natalie receives a check from Curtis in payment of his balance owed.Instructions:
    • Prepare journal entries for the transactions that occurred in June, July, and August in an Excel spreadsheet. Round to the nearest dollar. Note that the company uses a perpetual inventory system. Use the Part I Excel Template to record your transactions.
    • To reiterate, you will write your responses to Natalie’s questions (1–3) in a Word document, and you will complete the journal transactions in an Excel spreadsheet. Your responses to Part I (Natalie’s questions) should be a minimum of one page in length, and you will add your responses for Part II to this document before submitting.Part II
      Natalie is also thinking of buying a van that will be used only for business. The cost of the van is estimated at $36,500. Natalie would spend an additional $2,500 to have the van painted. In addition, she wants the back seat of the van removed so that she will have a lot of room to transport her mixer inventory as well as her baking supplies. The cost of taking out the back seat and installing shelving units is estimated at $1,500. She expects the van to last 5 years, and she expects to drive it for 200,000 miles. The annual cost of vehicle insurance will be $2,400. Natalie estimates that at the end of the 5-year useful life, the van will sell for $7,500. Assume that she will buy the van on August 15, 2020, and it will be ready for use on September 1, 2020.Natalie is concerned about the impact of the van’s cost on her income statement and balance sheet. She has come to you for advice on calculating the van’s depreciation.Instructions:
    1. Determine the cost of the van.
    2. Prepare three depreciation tables for 2020, 2021, and 2022: one for straight-line depreciation (similar to the one in Illustration 10-9), one for double-declining balance depreciation (Illustration 10-13), and one for units-of-activity depreciation (Illustration 10-11). Use the Part II Excel Template to determine depreciation. For units-of-activity, Natalie estimates that she will drive the van as follows: 15,000 miles in 2020; 45,000 miles in 2021; and 50,000 miles in 2022. Recall that Cookie Creations has a December 31 year-end.
    3. What impact will the three methods of depreciation have on Natalie’s balance sheet at December 31, 2020? What impact will the three methods have on Natalie’s income statement in 2020?
    4. What impact will the three methods of depreciation have on Natalie’s income statement over the van’s total 5-year useful life?
    5. What method of depreciation would you recommend Natalie use, and why?
    6. Use the same Word document that you used to record your Part I responses (one page in length), and add your responses for the Part II questions (1–5), which should be one page in length.In summary, you will submit one Word document containing your responses for Parts I and II (two-page minimum) and two Excel spreadsheets containing Natalie’s journal transactions from Part I and the depreciation tables from Part II. You will upload a total of three files to Blackboard (one Word document and two Excel spreadsheets).There are no resources required for this assignment; however, your Word document should be form

Columbia Southern University

I’m working on a statistics question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

Problems need to include all required steps and answer(s) for full credit. All answers need to be reduced to lowest terms where possible. If showing the answer in %, have two decimal places.

Answer the following problems showing your work and explaining or analyzing your results. Submit your work in a typed Microsoft Word document.

  1. A restaurant leaves a fishbowl on the counter for diners to drop their business cards. Once a month, a business card is pulled out to award one lucky diner with a free meal. Identify which type of sampling is used and why. (2 pts)
  2. A test of the effectiveness of a new curriculum could begin by dividing an area by school district, then choosing a school or set number of schools at random and sampling students from each. Identify which type of sampling is used and why. (2.5 pts)
  3. A survey about timekeeping might divide the population by time zone, then take 100 random samples per zone. Identify which type of sampling is used and why. (2.5 pts)
  4. A local TV station conducts an “Instant Poll” to predict the winner in the upcoming mayoral election. Evening news viewers were invited to phone in their votes, with the results to be announced on the late-night news. Based on the phone calls, the station predicted that Joseph Serra would win the election with 52% of the vote. They were wrong: Serra lost, getting only 46% of the vote. This faulty prediction may be the consequence of what kind of bias? (2.5 pts)
  5. According to Abyss Consulting, the average age of viewers of “America’s Got Talent” is 25 years old. However, the producer of the show thinks it is higher than 25.
    1. Write the null hypothesis Ho and alternative hypothesis Ha. (2.5 pts)
    2. Is this a right-tailed, left-tailed, or two-tailed test? (2 pts)
  6. A research analyst believes that average back-to-school spending is less than a trade group’s prediction of $606.
    1. Write the null hypothesis Ho and alternative hypothesis Ha. (2.5 pts)\
    2. Is this a right-tailed, left-tailed, or two-tailed test? (2 pts)\
  7. A study found that, in 2005, 12.5% of workers belonged to unions. Suppose a sample of 400 workers is collected in 2006 to determine whether union efforts to organize have increased union membership. The sample result show that 68 of the workers belonged to unions. State the null hypothesis Ho and alternative hypothesis Ha. (2.5 pts)
  8. Consider the null hypothesis Ho: The man is innocent of crime. Ha: The man is guilty of crime
    .
    1. What is the Type I error? (2.5 pts)
    2. What is the Type II error? (2.5 pts)
  9. Using a random sample of n = 36, the sample mean is x ̅ = 2.92. Suppose that the population standard deviation is σ=0.18.

    Is the above statistical evidence sufficient to make the following claim:

    μ<3

    at the 5% level of significance?

    1. Write the null hypothesis Ho and alternative hypothesis Ha. (2.5 pts)
    2. Calculate the standard error. (2.5 pts)
    3. Calculate the z score. (2.5 pts)
    4. Calculate the p value. (2.5 pts)
    5. What is the conclusion? (2 pts)
  10. Using a random sample of n = 50, the sample mean is x ̅ = 297.6. Suppose that the population standard deviation is σ=12.

    Is the above statistical evidence sufficient to make the following claim:

    μ>295 right tail, one tail at the 1% level of significance?

    1. Write the null hypothesis Ho and alternative hypothesis Ha. (2.5 pts)
    2. Calculate the standard error. (2.5 pts)
    3. Calculate the z score. (2.5 pts)
    4. Calculate the p value. (2.5 pts)
    5. What is the conclusion? (2 pts)

Columbia Southern University

Instructions

For this assignment, you will be provided the opportunity to practice what you have learned to this point. To successfully complete this assignment you will need to apply the scientific method approach to complete a set of field notes and audio recording of these notes simulating an on-scene recording. These notes will be used later to complete an investigative report on all the details of the fire and probable cause based upon the given information. You will need to complete the following tasks:

  1. review the fire scenario and fire scene photos;
  2. record audio notes of what you found in the analysis of the fire scene scenario and photos; and
  3. make written field notes of the fire scene (record all the necessary information that is needed to complete the final fire investigation report, including diagrams).

Scenario:

Time: 1100 hours
Date: February 23, 2016
Weather Conditions: Clear–-38 degrees (cold wind @ 20 mph)
Type of Structure: One-family wooden-frame structure
Occupants: Family of four—husband, wife, 9-year-old male, 4-year-old female
Pictures: See below
Notification: At 1100 hours, you were notified by the fire dispatcher to respond to 1234 Main Street on a reported structural fire that was under control and required a cause and origin investigator.

Once you arrived on the scene, you were briefed by Lt. Dan Taylor, who stated that upon arrival the fire was visible out both kitchen windows and was spreading quickly to the living-room area. The fire was then quickly extinguished and confined to the kitchen. There were noticeable burn patterns forming a large V-pattern that indicated the fire originated in the area of the stove.

To prevent any form of spoliation, the Hometown Department completed its fire suppression efforts and taped off the area for further investigation prior to any additional overhauling procedures.

Homeowner’s statement: Mrs. Williams stated that she was preparing breakfast for her children when her cell phone rang. She walked to her front porch where she became engaged in a general conversation with her friend. With bacon still cooking on the stovetop, the grease became so hot that it ignited and vertically spread into the ceiling. Once off the phone, the homeowner noticed smoke coming from the kitchen area. After going to the kitchen to locate the source of the smoke, she saw the burning pan and called 911 to report the fire and said she was exiting her home for safety. The Hometown Fire Department then arrived and extinguished the fire.

Fire Scene Photos:

Fire Scene Photo 1  Burned kitchen stove top and wall.

Fire Scene Photo 2. Kitchen stove with burned debris, burnt skillet, and whole in wall adjacent to stove.

Fire Scene Photo 3. Hole burned in bottom of skillet.

You are now at the fire scene. Explain the specific details of the pre-arrival information, en route and fire scene investigation, and interviews. Be sure to include your physical findings and any evidence that may have been collected from the fire scene. This set of field notes should include all findings with a completed hypothesis of the fire. Your verbal and written field notes should include all seven steps of the scientific method and an initial hypothesis.

Columbia Southern University

Proposal for Coordinating State Public Health Policy With Stakeholders

Unlike most other developed nations, the United States does not have a unified healthcare system. Even with the passage of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), the first major health reform law passed in this country in nearly 50 years, the United States continues to provide healthcare services through a patchwork of public and private insurance plans; federal, state, and local governments; and institutions and individual providers who are often unconnected to one other.

For instance, lack of coordination within the healthcare system that leave all parts of the system fragmented and not working together has undermined the success of the federal government’s commitment to address national health challenges through initiatives such as Healthy People 2020 (Teitelbaum & Wilensky, 2020).

Imagine you are a newly appointed public health policy expert working in your state’s public health department. In your first policy meeting, the director expresses concern about the growing number of staff in the department who continuously blame policy failures on other stakeholders. Your supervisor believes that there are misconceptions about the role of stakeholders in public health policy among the department’s staff.

As the first step to address this concern, your supervisor asks you to conduct research and write a mini-report that identifies and assesses the following issues.

  • Describe the key roles of at least four major stakeholders/players, to include a mix of public and private (i.e., federal or state agencies, providers, insurance companies, professional organizations, public health institutions, lobbyist organizations) you believe to have significant influence on your state’s public health policies.
  • List these agencies and organizations and describe their effectiveness.

Your proposal must present a clear supporting argument that identifies the role of the stakeholders for public health policy in your state and analysis with your evidence.

Columbia Southern University

  • Unit I Proposal

    • Weight: 10% of course grade
    • Grading Rubric
    • Due: Monday, 07/12/2021 11:59 PM (CST)
    Instructions
    Project Proposal

    Throughout this course, you will work in each unit to build a project plan that will ultimately become your final deliverable for Unit VIII. Starting in Unit II, you will begin creating components that will cumulatively make up your final project plan. Your professor will grade each component and offer feedback. The feedback can then be used to make any improvements before submitting all components of the final project plan in Unit VIII.The outline below represents how your final project plan should be organized.

    1. Project Overview (Units II and III)
      • 1.1 Purpose, Scope and Objectives, and Business Case
        • 1.1.1 Scope
        • 1.1.2 Statement of Work (SOW)
        • 1.1.3 Business Case
      • 1.2 Project Deliverables
      • 1.3 Project Organization
      • 1.4 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
        • 1.4.1 Task Description Documentation
        • 1.4.2 Organization Breakdown Structure (OBS)
      • 1.5 Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)
      • 1.6 Work Authorization
      • 1.7 Work Charter
    2. Risk Assessment (Unit IV)
      • 2.1 Risk Identification
      • 2.2 Assessment of Probability and Consequence (Qualitative)
      • 2.3 Assessment of Probability and Consequence (Quantitative)
      • 2.4 Mitigation Strategies
    3. Quality Management Report (Unit IV)
    4. Project Schedule (Unit V)
      • 4.1 Activity Duration Estimates
      • 4.2 Gantt Chart
      • 4.3 Activity Network
    5. Project Budget (Unit VI)
      • 5.1 Project Resources
      • 5.2 Other Costs
      • 5.3 Cost Estimates
      • 5.4 Time-Phased Budget
    6. Communications Management (Unit VII)
    7. Tracking and Status Updates (Unit VII)
      • 7.1 Tracking Method
      • 7.2 Notification Record
      • 7.3 Control Systems
    8. Project Closeout (Unit VIII)
      • 8.1 Close Cost Accounts
      • 8.2 Lessons Learned

    In the assignment for Unit I, you will start the project process by providing the professor with your idea for a project. The professor will provide feedback so that you can adjust your project, as needed, for Unit II.Take the considerations below into account.

    1. The project’s timeframe should be about two months in duration. In other words, building a hotel would not be considered an appropriate project for this course because it would likely take at least 6 months to build.
    2. The project team should include at least six people from different areas of your chosen organization.
    3. The scope of the project should be neither too simple nor too complicated. An information technology (IT) project that involves replacing the desktops in the customer service department would be too simple because it would likely only involve a couple of employees and one or two tasks. An IT project involving an organization replacing all of their legacy systems across its U.S. operations would likely be too complicated. Find some middle ground, and remember that you will need to break down the tasks and assign responsibilities to team members.
    4. Your project may be initiated from any functional unit (e.g., IT, operations, accounting, customer service, product development, marketing, sales), but be prepared to create your team using employees from multiple functional units.

    For this unit’s assignment, include the components listed below in a minimum of a one-page document using proper APA formatting.

    1. Include the title of your project.
    2. Provide a description (abbreviated scope) of the project.
    3. Specify the project timeframe.
    4. Identify those involved in the project.

    Once the professor provides you with feedback on your project idea, you can make the needed adjustments for Unit II and begin to develop your project plan.

    Resources

    The following resource(s) may help you with this assignment.

    Submit Unit I Proposal »

Columbia Southern University

Instructions
Copyright Scenario

Jim Clark, an artist in Birmingham, submitted his logo design for the Birmingham Cougars football team, and the Cougars used a logo design that was very similar to Clark’s design for their team logo during the 1996–1998 seasons. Clark sued the Cougars for copyright infringement for using his design as their logo without his permission, and the court ruled that the Cougars had improperly used Clark’s design for their logo and had infringed on his copyright of that design.

The Cougars changed their logo for the 1999 season, but they started showing highlight films from their 1996–1998 seasons in their stadium, on their website, and on their television channel, and the logo that Clark had designed and that the Cougars had improperly used during those seasons appeared in the highlight films.

Clark sued the Cougars a second time, alleging that the appearance of the logo he designed in the highlight films was, again, copyright infringement.

The Cougars assert two defenses to Clark’s claim of copyright infringement the second time around.

  1. The Cougars contended that their use of the 1996–1998 logo in the highlight films was protected by the fair use doctrine.
  2. Since Clark and the Cougars were both citizens of Birmingham, there was no commerce among the states or interstate commerce involved, so Congress had no authority to make laws that protected Clark’s copyright.

In a two-page case study, address the questions below.

  1. Is the Cougar’s use of the logo on the highlight films protected by the fair use doctrine?
  2. Is the Cougar’s claim that Congress does not have the power to regulate copyright within a single state valid?

As you answer these two questions about the Cougar’s use of the logo, explain how the evolution of the Commerce Clause of the Constitution of the United States affects businesses and the Cougars in particular. Also, be sure to address the categories of intellectual properties protected by the Constitution of the United States.

Your case study should be at least two pages in length and include at least two outside sources. Be sure to use APA formatting for all citations and references. Please note that no abstract is needed.

The Legal Citations tutorial may be helpful in citing legal documents.

Resources

The following resource(s) may help you with this assignment.

Columbia Southern University

Seeking assistance with 10 questions for basic statistics.

Questions attached below

Module 1 – Case

Introduction to Probability

Case Assignment

By submitting this assignment, you affirm that it contains all original work, and that you are familiar with Trident University’s Academic Integrity policy in the Trident Policy Handbook. You affirm that you have not engaged in direct duplication, copy/pasting, sharing assignments, collaboration with others, contract cheating and/or obtaining answers online, paraphrasing, or submitting/facilitating the submission of prior work. Work found to be unoriginal and in violation of this policy is subject to consequences such as a failing grade on the assignment, a failing grade in the course, and/or elevated academic sanctions. You affirm that the assignment was completed individually, and all work presented is your own.

Problems need to include all required steps and answer(s) for full credit. All answers need to be reduced to lowest terms where possible. If the answer is in %, show two decimal places.

Answer the following problems showing your work and explaining (or analyzing) your results. Submit your work in a typed Microsoft Word document.

  1. During an economic downturn, Lanier Company is forced to lay off employees. The table below breaks down the layoffs:
    Being Laid Off Not Being Laid Off Total
    Managers 50 235 285
    Non-Managers 125 575 700
    Total 175 810 985
    1. What is the probability that an employee of Lanier is being laid off given that she/he is a non-manager? (3 pts)
    2. What is the probability that an employee selected at random is a manager? (3 pts)
  2. The following data set represents the average day temperature in Orange County, CA for December.Find the probability that a randomly selected day will have an average temperature of at least 60 ℉. (4pts)

    DEGREES (in Fahrenheit)

    4362 6546 5565 4957 6044 5264 4553 6148 5963 4756

    Find the probability that a randomly selected day will have an average temperature of at least 60 ℉. (4pts)

  3. A survey was taken to determine the birthplace of a class of students in a statistics class. Below is the data set.
    Gender Number of Students Birthplace
    Male 6 San Diego
    Female 10 San Diego
    Male 12 Los Angeles
    Female 8 Los Angeles
    Male 5 San Francisco
    Female 9 San Francisco
    1. What is the probability that a male student was born in Los Angeles? (3pts)
    2. What is the probability that a female student was born in San Diego? (3 pts)
  4. What is the probability of throwing one dice and getting the number greater than 5? (4pts)
  5. Two coins are tossed 100 times. Below is the data set:
    Two heads 29
    One head 45
    No head 26
    1. What is the probability of getting two heads? (3pts)
    2. What is the probability of getting no head? (3pts)
  6. Broad Tire Manufacturing Company kept a record of the distance before a tire needed to be replaced. The table shows the results of 500 tires.
    Distance in miles Less than 2500 2500-5500 5501-8700 More than 8700
    Frequency 10 105 160 225
    1. If a tire is bought from this company, what is the probability that it must be replaced with less than 2500 miles? (3pts)
    2. What is the probability that it will last more than 5500 miles? (3pts)
  7. Two golfers, Phillips and Woodson, play a golf match. The probability of Phillips winning the math is 56%. What is the probability that Woodson wins the match? (4pts)
  8. The percentage of grades obtained by a student in five tests is given below:
    Test 1 2 3 4 5
    % of Grades 65 80 73 79 59

    Find the probability of the student getting at least 70% in a test. (4pts)

  9. Find the probability of correctly answering the first 5 questions on a multiple- choice test by randomly guessing the answer. Each question has 4 possible answers. (4pts)
  10. One card is drawn from a deck of 52 cards, well-shuffled.
    1. Calculate the probability that the card will be an ace or a king. (3pts)
    2. Calculate the probability the card will be a queen. (3pts)

Columbia Southern University

Module 7 Case Assignment: Springfield Purchases A Garbage Truck

SPRINGFIELD PURCHASES A GARBAGE TRUCK
Sam Springer, the supply manager of the City of Springfield, has a hot political potato on his hands. The situation sort of reminds Sam of an experience he had when he tried out for his high school football team.

Sam was the fourth team left guard. One day in a practice scrimmage, Sam picked up a loose ball. Unfortunately, Sam didn’t know which way to run.

Last month, Sam had solicited bids for a highly automated garbage truck. Only three responsive bids had been received by the specified bid opening date. The prices, F.O.B. Springfield, were as follows:

  • Mangler Garbage Trucks $95,472
  • Springfield Sanitation Trucks, Inc. $99,712
  • Chattanooga Cruncher Company $110,000

Mangler Garbage Trucks was located in Warren, a city some 300 miles from Springfield. The second lowest bidder was Springfield Sanitation Trucks, Inc.  SST, as the firm was known to most locals, was Springfield’s largest employer.

Sam checked with the chief of the Sanitation Department. The chief said that although he would like to see SST get the order, any of the three trucks would be fine with him. He felt that they were about equal in performance, quality, and maintenance cost.

When the contents of the bids were made public, SST’s president, Paul Percivel, contacted Sam’s boss, Tim Johansen, the city manager. Mr. Percivel acknowledged that his bid was higher than Mangler’s. He then pointed out that SST recently had to lay off workers due to slack orders. He concluded by saying, “Tom, you and I both know that unemployment is the number one problem in Springfield. How can we get manufacturers to locate here if we don’t show them that Springfield takes care of its own?” The city manager winced on this one. He currently was engaged in extended discussions with the vice president for logistics of one of the Fortune 500 companies. This firm had narrowed down its alternatives for a new 2,000-employee plant to Springfield and Warren.

After Mr. Percivel left, Mr. Johansen stopped by Sam’s office and discussed the situation. After hearing what the city manager had to say, Sam threw another coal on the fire by reporting on a discussion he had had with the sales manager of Mangler Garbage Trucks. The sales manager had opened the discussion by saying that he expected Springfield Sanitation Trucks to exert political pressure on Sam to buy its trucks. He continued by saying, “Not only will we save you nearly $5,000, but don’t forget that Mangler purchases $3 million to $4 million worth of components each year from Springfield manufacturers.”

That evening, Sam attended the monthly meeting of the Springfield Supply Management Association. He asked three of his dinner companions what they thought about the situation.

Wilbur Wilson, supply manager of Eagle Tool and Die, offered his advice. “I’d give the order to SST. You’ve got to do business with your friends here in Springfield. We have to keep Springfield dollars in Springfield. We’ve been operating this way at Eagle for years.”

On the other hand, Chuck Connors of Excalibur, Inc., insisted, “Sam, if you compromise now, you’ll start something you can’t stop. Every fly-by-night outfit in town will hound you for a piece of city business. I’d keep Springfield’s good name in mind. Suppliers tell me they think we’re an honest bunch. That’s why they always give us such good service and help so much on the standardization and value analysis committees.”

Roscoe Stevens of Needmore Corporation added this diplomatic note. “You can’t throw the bids out, Sam, but you’ve got to watch your step. The Taxpayers’ League will scream if you give the order to SST, because they were not the low bidder.”

  1. What factors should Sam consider in making a decision?
  2. What should that decision be?
  3. What should have been done to avoid some of the problems Sam faced?

Columbia Southern University

Unit VII Assignment

Instructions

The Body Revision

Follow the directions below for the completion of the body paragraphs revision assignment for Unit VII. If you have questions, please email your professor for assistance.

Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to revise the body of your academic argumentative research paper, which you created a draft of in Unit VI.

Description: In this assignment, you will revise the three to four body paragraphs you wrote in Unit VI. The following requirements must be included in the assignment:

  • Body Paragraphs: You will revise the body section of your paper based on feedback received from your professor in Unit VI. Please review here the guidelines for the body section of your research paper: This section will include three to four paragraphs comprised of five to seven sentences each. Each paragraph should be between 150-200 words. At a minimum, this portion of the paper should be 450-600 words (for three to four paragraphs); a body section of this length will meet the minimum requirements of the assignment. Revisions must be substantive and should be made in accordance with the direction given by the professor’s feedback. The following components must be included in each body paragraph (in the following order).
    • Sentence 1: Point/reason sentence: This topic sentence will contain one of your reasons.
    • Sentence 2: Explanation: In this sentence, you will provide information that further develops or explains Sentence 1.
    • Sentence 3: Illustration: This sentence introduces evidence that supports the reason that is presented in Sentence 1.
    • Sentence 4: Explanation of the illustration: Because the evidence does not necessarily stand on its own, you need to provide explanation so that the reader will understand how you interpreted the evidence to come to your reason.
    • Sentences 5-6: Second illustration and explanation (optional): You may choose to include a second piece of evidence that is then followed by an explanation.
    • Last Sentence: Transition: In this sentence, you will signal to the reader that you will be moving on to another point in the next paragraph. You do this to ease the movement from one point to another.
  • Be sure to include the introduction and literature review you have already created and revised.
  • Use APA conventions to cite and reference all sources used to support your argument.

Example paper with body paragraphs

This is a real student example. It is not a perfect example for all grammar, syntax, or APA, though it is in very good shape. The goal of viewing this example should be to see the overall structure and content.

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Unit VII Journal

Instructions

In this unit, we have taken a closer look at writing as a craft. We have revisited the writing process and methods for invention, we have examined informal logical fallacies, and we have discussed paragraph cohesion.

For this writing, think about your past experiences with writing (which may include the experiences you have had in this course). What advice about writing did you find most helpful? Why? Please explain the context that led to this advice. You may also tell more than one story about your writing experiences.

The objective of your reflection is to consider the advice of other writers and how we can always improve our writing by listening to others. Further, you are sharing that advice with your reader by reflecting upon the experience.

Remember, as always, that this writing should be a positive and constructive experience. The idea is that you reflect upon the process so that you understand it, understand yourself as a new student writer, and understand the challenges and successes you experience.

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.

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Unit VIII Assignment

Instructions

Conclusion and Abstract

Follow the directions below for the completion of the conclusion and abstract assignment for Unit VIII. If you have questions, please email your professor for assistance.

Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to complete your academic argumentative research paper.

Description: In this assignment, you will first write your conclusion; then, you will write your abstract. The following components are requirements of the assignment:

  • Conclusion (150-200 words):
    • Revisit the controversy.
    • Emphasize the seriousness of the controversy.
    • Answer the “So what?” question.
    • Suggest a general solution (optional).
    • Call for awareness/action.
    • Leave the reader with a final thought.
  • Abstract (200 words or less): For this assignment, you may not exceed 200 words.
    • Restatement of the controversy (one to two sentences)
    • Your thesis (one sentence)
    • Reasons (three to four sentences)
    • Conclusion sentence (one sentence)
  • Add the conclusion and abstract to the rest of your paper so that you are turning in a complete research paper. The paper should include all of the following components (in order):
    • Title page
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Literature review
    • Body paragraphs
    • Conclusion
    • References page

Full version of the partial paper shared in the assignment instructions in Units VI and VII

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Unit VIII Journal

Instructions

Writing a research paper is a great undertaking, and now you are at the end of the process. No doubt, you feel emboldened by your accomplishment.

As we have done throughout this course, you will be asked to reflect one last time. What did you find to be the most challenging about the process of writing this research paper? What did you find to be the easiest? What did you learn about writing in general throughout this course? What did you learn about yourself as a writer? What would you like to share in the way of advice for other students who take this course after you? Discuss how the concepts in this course can be applied to real-world situations and increase your chances of career or life success.

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.

Columbia Southern University

  • Unit VI Journal

    Instructions

    As you travel around your area while studying this unit, view some of the hazards associated with pressures, contaminants, and potential radiation that you see. What controls did you see in place to reduce risks, or what controls do you believe should have been in place? If you do not have any radiation sources in your area, review Internet websites and/or find a story about a work area that does (e.g., hospital, industrial facility), and apply the question to that article.Your journal entry must be at least 200 words in length. No references or citations are necessary.
    Submit Unit VI Journal »

  • QUESTION 1

    1. The maintenance manager of your facility has asked you to evaluate a particular welding booth that utilizes a local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system to remove the contaminant at the source. The exhaust system does not appear to be drawing enough of the welding fumes away from the employees to reduce the iron oxide below the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 10 mg/m3. During your investigation, you determine that the diameter of the duct system is 8 inches and has an air velocity of 350 fpm (feet per minute). The welding operation is performed at a distance of 1.5 feet from the exhaust opening. Determine the flow rate, and provide your recommendations on the control measures that could improve the capture of the iron oxide contaminant.Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

      QUESTION 2

      1. Your quality control/quality assurance manager has requested your assistance in the testing and repair facility. One of the test procedures utilizes a radiation source that is emitting gamma radiation at a rate of 50 mrem/hour at a distance of 1 foot. This testing is done for approximately 2 hours per day, 2 days per week. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has a PEL of 1.25 rem per quarter and 5 rem per year.

        1. Determine the employee’s exposure for 1 year.
        2. Calculate the exposure rate if the employee was moved to a distance of 3 feet from the radiation source.
        3. Calculate the exposure rate of the employee if a 5 cm lead shield was installed between the source and the detector. The employee is working at a distance of 1 foot from the source. [µ for lead, (662 keV gamma ray) = 1.23cm-1]

        Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

        QUESTION 3

        1. There are several gas cylinders that are under pressure, which are located outside of the maintenance department. As the safety professional, you have been asked a couple of questions regarding this issue. Please provide the correct responses, and discuss your recommendations for any control measures.

          1. The volume of the gas cylinder is 25.7 liters and exerts a pressure of 670 mmHg. If part of the gas is used, the pressure drops to 595 mmHg. What would be the remaining volume of gas?
          2. One of the cylinder’s content is under pressure at 1900 psi (per the gauge) at 70°F. As the day heats up because of the sun, the temperature increases to 105°F. What is the pressure at 105°F?

          Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

          QUESTION 4

          1. A process involves the removal of oil and other liquid contaminants from metal parts using a heat-treat oven, which has a volume of 15,000 ft3. The oven is free of solvent vapors. The ventilation rate of the oven is 2,100 cfm, and the safety factor (K) is 3. The solvent used in the process evaporates at a rate of 0.6 cfm (cubic feet per minute). The operator would like to know how long it would take the concentration to reach 425 ppm.Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

Columbia Southern University

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (generally referred to as the Affordable Care Act, or ACA) is the most monumental piece of U.S. federal health policymaking in nearly 50 years. It reorders not only many aspects of the health insurance and healthcare delivery systems but also long-standing relationships that underpin those systems. Yet beyond the sheer scope and content of the ACA and the policy trade-offs that led to its passage lies another story: its implementation and subsequent effect on the lives of tens of millions of Americans. In addition, there no doubt will be legal rulings in state and federal courts across the country that will alter the trajectory of the law and its implementation. (Teitelbaum & Wilensky, 2017, p. 169)

When President Barack Obama introduced the Affordable Health Care Act (ACA), several states banded together to challenge its constitutionality. On January 31, 2011, a federal judge ruled parts of the act unconstitutional. Obama’s law team formally appealed the decision in Florida et al. v. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services et al. Access the appeal , and read pages 55-67 (starting with the following section: “B. Congress’s Power Under the Spending Clause”).

For this case study assignment, review the aforementioned pages of the court case, and ensure you address the following items:

  • the key components of the ACA and the impact of the ongoing legal implementation issues on public health,
  • the barriers to the implementation of the ACA relating to the legal aspects in question,
  • the argument for appeal presented by President Obama’s team,
  • the negative implications of the legal aspects in this case on public health research and practice and recommended actions to address the identified challenges, and
  • strategies that can be taken by public health stakeholders and leaders to transform public health research findings into practice.

Your case study must be a minimum of three pages not counting title and reference pages, which are required. You must use the aforementioned court case and your textbook as your source material for your case study.

Columbia Southern University

Respond to at least two of your classmates. Each response should:

  • Be at least 150 words; must include more than one’s agreement or disagreement with another student’s post.
  • Be reacting to classmate’s post and demonstrate higher order thinking (challenge, connect, suggest, question, or expand the post of peers).
  • Use proper spelling, grammar, and punctuation, reply to 2 responses below.
  • Kaitlyn House Jul 27, 2021Jul 27 at 1:59pmManage Discussion Entry
  • The Independent Government Cost Estimate (IGCE) is an important assessment tool used to assist in the determination of the acquisition strategy and ultimately, the estimated cost of the performance. They are required to be submitted as part of a requisition package for new requirements, actions that cause a change in cost, or a change in a contract that realigns budget/reallocation of funds. The factors involved in developing an IGCE include obtaining historical rates, estimating the level of effort required, and estimating material, labor, travel and other direct costs. A contractor must provide a detailed justification of how they came to their basis of estimates and what assumptions they made to create their estimates.I am regularly involved in Engineering Change Proposals (ECPs) at my work and assist in building these estimates. In our estimates, we provide details such as formulas that we use, historical data, subcontractor pricing proposals for their portions of the work (if applicable), the rates we used, and where the basis of information was obtained from (like Fedbizopps). Having a detailed justification on how a contractor comes up with their estimate is essential to a successful evaluation and award selection. If the government cannot see the rationale behind the proposal to see that it is in fact fair and reasonable, they will most likely have some red flags. I am new to government contracts and being a key player in proposals so this topic benefits me professionally and provides some background as to why such a large amount of detail and rationale is critical in IGCEs.Cost control and contract management apply to the acquisition of goods and services in both public and private sectors by assisting with planning and controlling costs (as wells as cash flows) to ensure financial obligations of the contract are met. Cost control can make or break a project’s budget. Making sure that the budget stays consistent with actual spending is how public & private sectors control their costs. They can easily go over budget if they are not carefully tracking the costs of all goods and services. Cost management keeps operations in check and makes sure financial goals are met, reducing the amount of risk on the project. Without proper contract management, it may be hard to track progress, there may be project delays, and there could be compliance issues.
  • Farzad FarzamFarzad Farzam MondayAug 2 at 3:03pmManage Discussion Entry

    Farzad FarzamEach IGCE should address the below-listed cost elements. Along with each portion of the cost breakdown there should be an explanation of the rationale used to formulate the estimate.Labor Mix/HoursThe IGCE should clearly indicate the labor categories and associated hours at each level to perform each task identified in the Statement of Work. For ease of evaluation and comparison, each task shall be listed in order in which it appears in the body of the SOW. In some cases where a particular task involves multiple functions; the preparer may want to further break down the IGCE according to these separate functions. Needless to say, if the SOW is broken down into subtasks, then there should be a separate analysis of each. One commonly overlooked consideration is in the area of overall management or direction. The preparer should include a reasonable number of hours for this function. The preparer of the IGCE should consider the skills required for task order accomplishments, not individuals. The Government is not bound to provide full-time employment for any Contractor employee. Show only the number of hours that will be productively utilized.SubcontractingFor the purposes of developing the IGCE, the preparer should assume all work under the SOW will be done by the prime Contractor even if the preparer knows or assumes the Contractor will propose subcontracting a portion of the requirement. It is the Contractor’s responsibility to identify and propose work which it intends to subcontract.TravelThe IGCE should be consistent with travel requirements identified in the SOW. The IGCE should clearly indicate the anticipated destinations, number of trips, number of personnel involved with each trip, and trip duration. (NOTE: Travel time should be considered when calculating the trip duration, e.g., if the Contractor is required to travel on Sunday for a Monday to Friday trip, the trip would be six days, not five. And, travel hours should be included in compensable labor hour estimates.) All rates utilized in the IGCE should be consistent with those specified in the federal Travel Regulations.Other Direct Costs (ODC)The IGCE should identify all estimated costs other than labor and travel as ODC cost elements. The preparer of the IGCE should not include any cost element, whether it be a material or ODC, for general or miscellaneous office supplies. Such supplies are part of the Contractor’s normal business operations cost and should not be included as direct cost unless such supplies are unique to requirements.Major risks or consequences stemming for being unable to estimate the cost of a contract span the procurement life cycle. For example, an impact during the pre-contract award phase is the inability to sufficiently resource a requirement. Resource mangers can’t plan or budget confidently without reasonable assurance of cost.During the contact award phase, the cost estimate is uses as a baseline for cost/price proposal evaluation. If it’s lacking decision, it can adversely impact the source selection decisions. For example, it can weaken negotiation positioning, preventing a good deal. Further, it may lead the source selection team to select the wring offeror. For example, a contractor may understate its cost proposal intentionally to “Buy in, “with the Motive of “getting well “through future change orders. If the contractor has a faulty cost estimate, it may be unapparent until irreparable damage (e.g., cost overruns) occurs during contract administration.The source selection team relies on cost estimates to assess proposal cot/price reasonableness. If a vendor loses a competition and protests the decision, the government’s cost estimate supports its defense.To meet the mission expeditiously, program offices are typically eager to acquire capability rapidly. Some view procurement request documentation, such as the contract cost estimate, as unnecessary. The temptation is to cut corners. However, what may result is the need for significant rework to ensure compliance, which may stretch the schedule significantly. The irony is not lost that patiently performing due diligence early in the acquisition process (even if it seems time consuming) can pay dividends in overall cycle time. In fact, in some cases a solid cost estimate may even expedite contract award.During contract administration, contacting officers’ technical representatives monitor contract cost/budget, schedule, and performance. Changes in scope may occur during a contract’s period of performance, requiring contract modifications. With an updated estimate based on sound actual cost record keeping, the COTR is able to estimate reasonable cost/price of the contract modification.

Columbia Southern University

Cookie Creations (Chapter 2)

This assignment is a continuation of the Cookie Creations case study, which began in Chapter 1. From the information gathered in the previous chapter, read the continuation of the Cookie Creations case study in Chapter 2 of the textbook on p. 2-42. SEE BELOW

The case study allows you to apply what you have learned about accounting and the recording process. This assignment will enable you to practice what you have learned so far.

After researching the different forms of business organization, Natalie decides to operate Cookie Creations as a proprietorship. She then starts the process of getting the business running. In November 2019, the following activities listed below take place.

Nov. 8: Natalie cashes her U.S. Savings Bonds and receives $520, which she deposits in her personal bank account.

Nov. 8: She opens a bank account under the name “Cookie Creations” and transfers $500 from her personal account to the new account.

Nov. 11: Natalie pays $65 for advertising.

Nov. 13: She buys baking supplies, such as flour, sugar, butter, and chocolate chips, for $125 cash. (Hint: Use the Supplies account.)

Nov. 14: Natalie starts to gather some baking equipment to take with her when teaching the cookie classes. She has an excellent top-of-the-line food processor and mixer that originally cost her $750. Natalie decides to start using it only in her new business. She estimates that the equipment is currently worth $300. She invests the equipment in the business.

Nov. 16: Natalie realizes that her initial cash investment is not enough. Her grandmother lends her $2,000 cash, for which Natalie signs a note payable in the name of the business. Natalie deposits the money in the business bank account. (Hint: The note does not have to be repaid for 24 months. As a result, the note payable should be reported in the accounts as the last liability and on the balance sheet as the last liability.)

Nov. 17: She buys more baking equipment for $900 cash.

Nov. 20: She teaches her first class and collects $125 cash.

Nov. 25: Natalie books a second class for December 4 for $150. She receives $30 cash in advance as a down payment.

Nov. 30: Natalie pays $1,320 for a 1-year insurance policy that will expire on December 1, 2020.

Answer the questions below using an Excel spreadsheet. You should create a new tab on your spreadsheet for each calculation used for a total of three tabs on your spreadsheet.

  1. Prepare journal entries to record the November transactions.
  2. Post the journal entries to general ledger accounts.
  3. Prepare a trial balance at November 30.

Please show your work, and do not take any shortcuts. Make sure to complete item “a” completely before moving to item “b,” and then move to item “c.” You cannot jump ahead unless you have completed each step sequentially in full.

Submit the Excel document in Blackboard upon completion.

Columbia Southern University

Case Study: The Privileged Fly

Submit your answers and be prepared to discuss in the live class session.

You are a privileged fly allowed to be on the wall of a corporate boardroom during a high-powered discussion. The corporation is an engineering firm whose sales total approximately $140 million a year. Up to now, things appear to have been going well. Production does an efficient job, and inventories have been reduced. But danger signs are cropping up. Although no orders have been lost yet, several shipments have missed their deadlines. Customers are beginning to complain. In addition, transportation costs on incoming and outbound freight shipments are mushrooming. It is 9 a.m. and several people are nervously sitting at the conference table. A stern-looking individual enters.

The Cast

President Joe Gish: old-line type. Extremely successful. Has just attended a National Industrial Conference Board (NICB) seminar and is throwing a lot of new buzzwords and thoughts around. From his subordinates’ point of view, he is dangerous.

Traffic manager Harold Tracks: another old-liner, but much less successful. Not good at verbalizing, except to quote percentage increases. His freight bills are going up, and he is being made to look bad by comparison.

Supply manager Joan Glass: much younger than her associates. Does her best to understand president Gish’s words and tries to put some of them into action. Extremely inventory conscious.

Production manager Heinrich Holtz: a former blue-collar worker. Loves his machines and hates to see them idle. However, beneath his “for the good of the corporation” exterior lies the soul of a power maniac who seeks control over traffic and supply management.

Marketing manager Harold Levi: a stereotype. Is afraid of losing sales because of late deliveries. Generally, echoes presidential statements. Appears ready to support Heinrich Holtz’s power play.

Director of finance Sol Stein: dedicated to cost reduction.

Action

(This is what the privileged fly observes and hears.)

President Gish brings the meeting to order. “Look at these air freight bills. Here’s one for $955—more than the damn part is worth. I know because I checked. These things are murdering us! You must realize that in our business today, transportation has great cost-cutting potential.”

Traffic manager Tracks responds. “I know that freight bills have risen 30 percent in the last six months, but what can I do? Miss Glass here is cutting inventories so hard that she never has anything in stock. Her short lead times force me to use air freight. And the way she spreads small orders, I almost never find a way to consolidate them to get volume rates. And I’m having the same problems on outgoing shipments. I’m caught in a two-bladed buzzsaw!”

Supply manager Joan Glass interrupts to say, “Harold, we’re operating on low inventories because we save money doing it. Many times air freight is the only way I can be sure of getting what I need on time.”

Production manager Holtz comments, “When I need something, I need it. Take spares. This downtime is a very expensive proposition, and we all know it. Further, by the time Miss Glass here gets me needed production materials, we are so late that the only way to meet delivery dates is with overtime and the use of air freight.”

Marketing manager Levi joins in. “Whatever the trouble, it seems there must be a way to get an efficient pipeline. If Heinrich is late, then I am late. We are losing our image as a reliable supplier. Soon, we’ll be losing sales!”

Traffic manager Tracks defends himself by saying, “I don’t want to seem bitter, but it looks like I’m getting the short end of the stick.”

President Gish interrupts., “No more excuses. I want action! Costs must come down.”

Supply manager Glass defends herself by saying, “The lead-time problem goes right back through production and eventually to Harold’s sales forecasts. I need earlier information.”

Marketing manager Levi says, “I have to promise prompt delivery. We all know that the problem is at the other end.”

Production manager Holtz suggests, “Like I’ve been saying for a long time, we should combine supply and traffic and get them closer to production.”

At this point, supply manager Glass sounds frustrated when she says, “Heinrich, we’re right back where we started. We need lower freight costs, but at the same time we must keep inventory down.”

Director of finance Stein says, “Inventory carrying cost is over 30 percent a year. I think that Joan has done a great job. But I do agree with Mr. Gish that transportation costs are way over budget.”

President Gish concludes the meeting by saying, “Heinrich’s idea is a possibility. We could create a materials management setup. I understand it is the coming thing. I will give each of you one week to put all your ideas on paper. Be prepared to deliver your reports at our next meeting. I want us out of this fix. . . and soon!”

  1. Discuss the basic inventory problem confronting this firm.
  2. Air freight bills keep growing both in numbers and in total dollar value of freight
    transported. What are the factors that have contributed to the development of this
    situation? Do they reflect efficient or inefficient management of supply, inventories,
    and production in firms such as this one? Discuss.
  3. What should Joan Glass do?
  4. Should Glass suggest a materials manager?
  5. Should Glass build up her inventories?

Columbia Southern University

Unit V Case Study

Cookie Creations (Chapters 5 and 6)

This assignment is a continuation of the Cookie Creations case study from previous chapters. From the information gathered in the previous chapters, read the continuation of the Cookie Creations case study below for Chapter 5 and Chapter 6, which can also be found on p. 5-51 and p. 6-45.

The case study allows you to apply what you have learned about accounting for merchandising operations (Chapter 5) and inventories (Chapter 6). This assignment will allow you to practice what you have learned so far.

Part I

Because Natalie has had such a successful first few months, she is considering other opportunities to develop her business. One opportunity is the sale of European mixers. The owner of Kzinski Supply Company has approached Natalie to become the exclusive distributor of these fine mixers in her state. The current cost of a mixer is approximately $575, and Natalie would sell each one for $1,150. Natalie comes to you for advice on how to account for these mixers. Each appliance has a serial number and can be easily identified.

Natalie has come to you for your advice on how to account for these mixers and asks you the questions below, which you must address.

  1. Would you consider these mixers to be inventory, or should these mixers be classified as supplies or equipment?
  2. Which inventory tracking system should Natalie use: perpetual or periodic?
  3. Which system do you think is better: perpetual or periodic?
  4. Which system would you recommend for the type of inventory that Natalie wants to sell?
  5. How often does Natalie need to count inventory if she maintains it using the perpetual system? In contrast, does she need to count inventory at all?
Part II

Natalie is busy establishing both divisions of her business (cookie classes and mixer sales), and she is completing her business degree. Her goals for the next 11 months are to sell one mixer per month and to give two to three classes per week.

The cost of the fine European mixers is expected to increase. Natalie has just negotiated new terms with the owner of Kzinski Supply Company, which will include shipping costs in the negotiated purchase price (mixers will be shipped free on board (FOB) destination). Assume that Natalie has decided to use a periodic inventory system and now must choose a cost flow assumption for her mixer inventory. The transactions listed below occur in February to May 2020.

Feb. 2: Natalie buys two deluxe mixers on account from Mixer Supply Company for $1,200 ($600 each), FOB destination, terms n/30.

Feb. 16: She sells one deluxe mixer for $1,150 cash.

Feb. 25: She pays the amount owed to Mixer Supply Company.

Mar. 2: She buys one deluxe mixer on account from Mixer Supply Company for $618, FOB destination, terms n/30.

Mar. 30 : Natalie sells two deluxe mixers for a total of $2,300 cash.

Mar. 31: She pays the amount owed to Kzinski Supply Company.

Apr. 1 : She buys two deluxe mixers on account from Mixer Supply Company for $1,224 ($612 each), FOB destination, terms n/30.

Apr. 13: She sells three deluxe mixers for a total of $3,450 cash.

Apr. 30: Natalie pays the amount owed to Mixer Supply Company.

May 4: She buys three deluxe mixers on account from Mixer Supply Company for $1,875 ($625 each), FOB destination, terms n/30.

May 27: She sells one deluxe mixer for $1,150 cash.

For Part II, determine the cost of goods available for sale. You will recall from Chapter 5 (see Part I above) that at the end of January, Cookie Creations had three mixers on hand at a cost of $575 each. For Part II of the assignment, you will calculate the following items: ·

  • ending inventory, 
  • cost of goods sold, 
  • gross profit, and 
  • gross profit rate under each of the following methods: last-in, first-out (LIFO); first-in, first-out (FIFO); and average cost.

Columbia Southern University

Instructions

For this assignment, you will review four case studies(see attachment), evaluate the studies and respond to each of the questions below, using both critical thinking and theory as well as supporting documentation.

In Chapter 9, read the case study ”Soma Bay Prospers with ERP in the Cloud” on pages 345–346 of the textbook. Then, address the prompts below.

  • Describe the problem that Soma Bay encountered in this case study.
  • Why was an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system needed to solve the problem?
  • What are some challenges that this ERP system poses?
  • Will this ERP system help the company achieve operational excellence? Why, or why not?

In Chapter 10, read the case study “A Nasty Ending for Nasty Gal” on pages 414–416 of the textbook. Then, answer the questions below.

  • Was it a good idea to use social media as a marketing and social tool for Nasty Gal? Why, or why not?
  • What were the management, organization, and technological issues that contributed to the failure of Nasty Gal?
  • If you were hired as the new chief executive officer (CEO) of Nasty Gal, what would you have done differently to keep the company from filing for bankruptcy?

In Chapter 11, read the case study “Can Cars Drive Themselves–And Should They?” on pages 453–455 of the textbook. Then, address the prompts below.

  • Discuss some benefits and disadvantages of automated automobiles. Be sure to include a discussion of ethical and social issues presented by automated automobiles.
  • If you were the CEO of a major auto manufacturer, would you invest resources in the development and marketing of automated automobiles? Why, or why not?

In Chapter 12, read the case study “Anthem Benefits from More Business Intelligence” on pages 480-481 of the textbook. Then, address the prompts below.

  • Discuss the problem with the old human resources (HR) system at Anthem.
  • Describe the new People Data Central (PDC) portal adopted by Anthem. What does it do, and how does it improve data analytics capabilities at Anthem?
  • How will the new PDC portal help the HR department make better decisions?

When formatting your case analysis, do not use the question-and-answer format; instead, use an essay format with subheadings. Your APA-formatted case study must be at least four pages in length (not counting the title and reference pages). You are required to use a minimum of three peer-reviewed, academic sources that are no more than 5 years old. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; all paraphrased material must have accompanying in-text citations.

Text book reference:

Laudon, K. C., & Laudon, J. P. (2020). Management information systems: Managing the digital firm (16th ed.). Pearson. https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/97801351920…

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