Anglia Ruskin University Camb

Please respond to katy with 270 words . Please provide an assessment of katys response, and also include the references and citations listed in katy’s response.

Question #1-Describe the factors that represent habitat and why each is important in determining the characteristics of individual plant communities.

Habitat is defined in the dictionary as a place or environment where a plant or animal naturally or normally lives or grows. Because of California’s size and unique location, California is home to one of the largest varieties of habitats in one state. We have deserts, grasslands, wetlands, coastline, scrublands and forests. The coastal habitat includes the tidal zones, coastal strand and coastal salt marshes. Knowledge of habitats is critical in the study of the distribution of plants and animals in California. Habitats hold a combination of physical factors such as climate, slope, soil, and drainage. Habitats are very important to the plants and animals of california, and represent the environmental conditions in which organisms live. A habitat must possess all the environmental settings a plant or animal needs to survive. A good habitat must include the right amount of sun, air conditions, rich soils, and water. Drier areas are home to more drought resistant plants such as the california sagebrush or the manzanita tree. Whereas the coastal regions are home to california poppies and redwood trees. California’s wide variety of beautiful plant species are just one of the reasons I love living in this great state.

Rediscovering the Golden State

William A Selby

Chapter 5

National Geographic Research Library

https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/habitat/ (Links to an external site.)

California Habitats, Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles

https://www.exploringnature.org/db/view/California-Habitats-Mammals-Birds-Amphibians-Reptiles (Links to an external site.)

Question #2-Explain how southern California plant communities have adapted to summer drought. Give specific examples.

Southern California’s plant communities have evolved over time. Many factors contribute to this exchange such as dispersal events, climate, slope, soils, fires, human interaction, and many others. The climate type in much of California is described as Mediterranean climate, with winter rains and dry, hot summers. The vegetation in these climates is adapted to seasonal drought because it typically experiences intensely low precipitation during the hottest times of the year, which is generally between July and late September, with regular highs around 99 degrees fahrenheit, and rarely dropping below 65 degrees fahrenheit. California’s climate has been this way for more than 11,00 years, since the last ice age. One example of a drought tolerant community in Southern California is Chaparral. Chaparral covers nearly 10% of the state. There, you will find short, dense, and scrubby vegetation. They look like this because short, dense and scrubby vegetation thrive very well in intensely dry habitats. This is called a drought-resistant strategy for survival. The plant species in this community are adapted to living in dry climates where water conservation is key. The plants in Chaparral display beautiful sclerophyll leaves, which work a bit backwards. As opposed to losing their leaves in the winter like most plants, they lose their leaves in the summer. They call these drought deciduous plants. This reduces the energy and water demand of the plant in the drier summer droughts. This is just one example of the drier plant communities.

Rediscovering the Golden State

William A Selby

Chapter 5

The Impact of Drought on Native Southern California Vegetation: Remote Sensing Analysis Using MODIS-Derived Time Series

RESEARCH ARTICLE

https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1029/2018JG004485 (Links to an external site.)

Chaparral Biome: The Perfect Climate

Rob Nelson

https://untamedscience.com/biology/biomes/chaparral-biome/ (Links to an external site.)

Question #3-Why is fire beneficial to plant communities and which species in particular are reliant upon it for their survival.

Californians have been known to build within numerous plant communities where fires are inevitable. Many popular locations such as Malibu, Laguna, Beverly Hills, Santa Barbara, Oakland, Berkeley, and even our beautiful, and might I add very important to myself personally, wine country. Fire season is the time of the year when wildfires are most likely to happen. With the most recent climate changes as a developing factor, some experts suggest that California’s fire season is now year round. Californians have built their homes within fire country, suppressed fires and paid the price for centuries. Although even the early California Indians started their fair share of wildfires, there is evidence of frequent smaller California fires even before human interaction was a factor. Sadly, because of past fire suppression, wildfires today burn so rapidly and with so much heat that they kill native plants and animals that would have most likely survived and thrived to quickly repopulate an area. We have only recently learned that by lighting controlled fires, or allowing some wildfires to burn, we can restore plant communities to their natural states and decrease the threat of more destructive and devastating fires. On days with higher humidity and low winds, fire crews may start controlled burns that are designed to clear out dead fuel and brush, and return a plant community to its natural state, therefore ensuring that the next fire will not burn so hot. Many species within these plant communities survive by “crown sprouting”. This is a process where the plant regrows from root crowns. Other plants shed seeds that will only germinate after the soil has been scorched and re moisturized. Some local herbs are known as “pyrophyte endemics” because they will only germinate and grow after a fire has deposited the necessary minerals in the soil. Some examples of fire thriving plants species are the coastal redwoods and our own giant sequoias.

Rediscovering the Golden State

William A Selby

Chapter 5

Wikipedia “Pyrophyte”

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrophyte (Links to an external site.)

When is fire season in California

https://www.frontlinewildfire.com/when-california-fire-season/ (Links to an external site.)

Question #5-Choose an individual plant community and describe its habitat and common plants and animals within it.

I have chosen to write about the California Grasslands for this question. Originally about 13% of california was covered by these beautiful wavy fields. Mostly in the inland valleys and tucked coastal hills and mountains. Some of these beautiful valleys include Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Salinas, and other inland valleys surrounding the Bay Area as well as the inland coastal plains of Southern California. Most of California’s grasslands are accustomed to long, hot and dry summers, and lower winter precipitation, with winter rains draining quickly through the thick porous soil, often leaving dry plant roots. Most trees and even shrubs cannot survive in this environment due to lack of water or nutrients or both. Plants that are not properly adapted wither by early summer. In the classic book “An Island Called California” the writer, Elna Baker compares california’s grasslands to those of the U.S. Great Plains Grasslands, calling the plant community “California’s Kansas”. The pronghorn antelope and the tule elk play the role of the large grazers in the California valleys. There is an abundance of small herbivores, especially insects. Small mammals and birds such as the meadow mice, pocket mice, kangaroo rats, gophers, goldfinches and sparrows, and insects such as grasshoppers, ants and crickets call the grasslands home, and feast on seeds and native plantlife. With fewer large predators, the gopher community has grown to more than 30 per acre in some fields. Grasshopper mice, deer mice, and lizards feast on insects as do some small carnivorous birds. It is also home to a wide variety of snakes, coyotes, foxes and predatory birds. This wide variety of unique plants and animals thrive in California’s grasslands.

Rediscovering the Golden State

William A Selby

Chapter 5 pages 153-155

Anglia Ruskin University Camb

Please respond to hailey with 250 words. Please use the reference and citations provided in the discussion and provide and assessment of Haileys response .

3-Why is fire beneficial to plant communities and which species in particular are reliant upon it for their survival.

According to Tropical Savannas CRC & Bush fire CRC fires can be very beneficial to the plant communities because it removes low growing bushes, cleans the forest from debris, opens up new sunlight, and can nourish the soil for new growth. Fire can act as a herbivore removing unnecessary plants for new plants to grow, although fire can kill many trees it allows more to grow from the nourishing soil. There are many fires that are controlled so dead trees can burn and new trees can grow. There are many positives to wildfires but also many negative effects, some of the negative effects are the fires affecting the weather with the intense amounts of carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Fire can benefit many different species because these animals depend on newer wildlife. Some of the species that depend on fires are reptiles, insects, elk, deer, and bears.These animals can thrive and increase in numbers from a fire. Fires can also have a negative and devastating effect on animals, over 3 billion species can be killed in wildfires.

http://learnline.cdu.edu.au/units/env207/ecology/individual.html (Links to an external site.)

CRC, T. S. (n.d.). Effects of fire on plants and animals: Individual level. Retrieved from http://learnline.cdu.edu.au/units/env207/ecology/i…

7-Describe the history of water rights in California’s early settlement.

About 200 million acres of water falls on California each year from rainfall, 326,000 gallons is used for households all over California. More than 80 percent of California’s water goes to some form of irrigation. According to William Shelby he states “ Today’s water issues and future water policies must include consideration of appropriate and equitable distribution, consumption, pricing, and quality of water. This is especially important considering some officials’ projections that water use may top 50 million” (Shelby pg. 214). This means per capita use of water has tripled with more droughts and has been encouraged to conserve water throughout California. In 1839 John August Sutter was granted a large rancho where the American River joins the Sacramento River. Sutter had water needs and only needed a drop compared to the millions of gallons that could be used. In California’s water history people needed to work together when disputing because it is such a large start, working together would resolve many major problems that included water.

William A Selby Rediscovering the Golden State California Geography 4th edition

9-Describe the unique nature of California’s freshwater environments.

California has many freshwater environments, some are underground water sources and some are on the surface. Keeping these freshwater sources healthy is the biodiversity that is often hidden underground. According to Science for Conservation “The San Joaquin River contains some of the highest concentrations of endemic freshwater species, as do the Sacramento, Salinas, upper Klamath, Pit, and Amargosa rivers. While watersheds of the south do not have large numbers of freshwater species compared to the rest of the state” These freshwater environments have many unique features such as the plants and species located there. California’s freshwater plants and animals purify the water we drink and use to grow crops. Some of the unique species are Clear Lake Hitch which is a fish which lives along the Pacific Coast, this fish migrates throughout many freshwater sources in California. The next fish is the California Golden Trout, this fish was designated the official fish for California and mostly lives throughout the Sierra Nevada. The next species is a Scale Lanx, it is commonly found in Archimedes Pyrg and the Klamath Rams-Horn. The last unique species is Californians Red Logged Frog, this is the celebrated jumping frog and is commonly known for its unique red color.

https://www.scienceforconservation.org/assets/downloads/Below_the_Surface_CA_Freshwater_Diversity_May_2013.pdf\ (Links to an external site.)

10-What factors are causing the increasing pollution of California’s water?

There are many factors that play a part in the increasing pollution in California’s water, some of the main things that contribute to this is factories, sewage, and runoff from farms.As stated by Conserve Energy Future “ Eighty percent (Links to an external site.) of ocean pollution (Links to an external site.) or marine pollution originates on land along the coast or far inland. Streams and rivers carry contaminants such as chemicals, nutrients, and heavy metals that are carried from farms, factories, and cities into our bays and estuaries, and from there, they reach the ocean.” With these factors polluting California’s water may contaminate drinking water. Water pollution has affected many organisms and vegetation that live in water. Water pollution can be caused by natural effects also such as Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis these also affect the water but not as much as human made activities. Human made activities dissolve faster in the water causing devastating effects for the organisms.

https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/sources-and-causes-of-water-pollution.php (Links to an external site.)

CRC, T. S. (n.d.). Effects of fire on plants and animals: Individual level. Retrieved from http://learnline.cdu.edu.au/units/env207/ecology/i…

Anglia Ruskin University Camb

For this assignment you need to be familiar with preschool assessments .For this assignment you will review the preschool assessment ECERS Drdrd 2015 scoring sheet ,and then complete the ecers revised scoring sheet it is 12 pages and then write a reflection. You will need the book Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS-R): Revised Edition by thelma harms . I do not have the book. You can put the names and information that listed on the ecers drdp 2015 scoring sheet .

Attached is the ECERS Drdrd 2015 scoring sheet ,and the ecers revised scoring sheet

Complete ECERS-R score sheet

-43 items with comments in all (43×3)

o Total score part

o Conclusion/refection thought



Conclusion/ Reflection

After you have administered ECERS-R rating all 43 items, you will reflect and write a reflection of your experience. Write a brief paragraph in which you discuss:

  • Knowledge: Discuss/Identify/list knowledge (information) you’ve gained pertaining to administering ECERS-R at a program. Be specific. You could say:

The knowledge I have gained pertaining to completing ECERS-R is now….

I know the fact about it… ……

I used to think….. But I now know……

I have more understanding of ….

I am aware of…

I can better comprehend…….

Remember to discuss specific knowledge… if need be you can refer back to ECERS book and also, our textbook.

  • Skills: Discuss/identify/list the skill (ability, capability) you gained pertaining to administering ECERS-R. Be specific. You could say:

I will be able to

“I am capable of

“I know how to do

– I used to do…. But now I realize it is best to do…. Because. …

Remember to discuss specific knowledge… if need be you can refer back to ECERS book and also, our textbook.

  • Growth: After discussing/identifying/listing the knowledge and the skills you have gained. Now, provide an explanation as to how information and the skills learned will be used for future growth. You could:
    • Discuss how you will use the knowledge and skills you have developed;
    • And how you will improve or build upon your strengths and weaknesses.
  • Beliefs: How has completing the above assignment influenced your beliefs about Environment/Program/Children Development/etc.?
  • Anything else you would like to share regarding the assignment
  • Be very specific and detail




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