Use the modules and review resources to complete the chart on this handout comparing skull features of the chimp, human, Australopithecus africanus, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, and Homo sapiens. Refer to the module pages for images of skulls of the species.
Refer to the module page Week 7 – Skull Images for the Assignments (Genus Homo) for images and 3-D rotations of the skulls you need to describe and compare. You will also find Week 7 – Comparing and Measuring the Skull (Genus Homo) useful.
Open the worksheet
- Present or absent: When a feature is either there or not, you can use a + for present and – for absent. For example, “presence of sagittal crest” can be answered + or –.
- Describe: When you are asked to describe a feature, do so with a few words or short phrase. For example, “shape of dental arcade” can be answered “U-shaped.”
- Compare: When you are asked to compare, you need to ask “compare to what?” If there are three skulls being compared, you might say X and Y are smaller than Z. Or X is smaller than Y and Y is larger than Z.
- Measure: Use these measurements gathered from teaching materials at LAVC to calculate the condylar index and the facial index. All measurements are in millimeters
|A. africanus||Human (euro male)||
H. habilis (KNM ER 1813
|H. erectus (WT 15000)||H. heidlebergensis (Atapuerca 5)||H. neanderthalensis (La Ferrassie)|
|basion to opisthicranion||
|basion to prosthion||
|nasion to prosthion||
|basion to bregma||
H. heidelbergensis added 5/26/21
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