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1.   There have been five different “eras of punishment” in the United States that utilized varying  mechanisms for punishment.  Identify and discuss these five eras by discussing what you believe would be the strengths and weaknesses of each of them.  In particular, which of the five do you believe is the most effective in accomplishing its objective and why do you believe this? The 5 eras are: The Era of Penitentiary, The Era of Reform, The Era of Industry, The Era of Rehabilitation, and The Era of Retribution

2.   Most prisons offer “prison programs”  that help inmates prepare for re-entry into society.  How are the prisons addressing inmates with special needs, for example, those that are “HIV/AIDS positive” and those with substance abuse and alcohol problems?  Also, how does the prison systems take care of the “aged and elderly inmates” that are serving time and have problems unique to their age status?

3.  Regarding the future directions for “institutional corrections,” there are “three issues” that need concern.  Identify these three issues and comment on what you believe the future will hold regarding them.  Do you see them as all equal, or do you see one in particular that needs urgent attention.  Why do you take the position you do?

1st issue is the prison population and incarceration rate (how its steadily increasing and more criminals are being let back out on the streets),

The 2nd issue is how institutional supervison will deal with the special-needs offenders who are increasingly becomining part of the correctional population. These special needs categories are substance abusers, HIV inmates(coming up with different measures for preventing the spread of the virus will be a challenge, medication for these inmates will increase correctional budget, and elderly inmates (requring more medical and physical needs). 

3rd issue is the use of technology in the prison by the inmates (the misuse of cellphones by inmates to facilitate a variety of threatening and criminal actes such as murder for hire, drug deals, credit card fraud, escapes,and  prison riots. Social Networking sites is also a tool for criminal trade. The use of Facebook is very beneficial for gang members. Recruting new members through Facebook and facilitate gang activities 

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